Java源码之HashSet

x33g5p2x  于2021-03-13 发布在 Java  
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一、HashSet概述

HashSet是java.util包中的类,该容器只能存储不重复的对象。允许使用null元素。

它不保证set 的迭代顺序,特别是它不保证该顺序恒久不变,这点跟HashMap一样,事实上在HashSet内部就是使用HashMap来存储元素的。

它实现了Set接口,由哈希表(实际上是一个HashMap实例)支持。

二、HashSet实现

1.头文件与继承关系

package java.util;

import java.util.Set;
import java.io.InvalidObjectException;

public class HashSet<E>
	extends AbstractSet<E>
	implements Set<E>, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable

2.属性

private transient HashMap<E,Object> map;

// 为支持Map所用的哑值(看到add方法时自然会知道干什么用的)
private static final Object PRESENT = new Object();

3.构造方法(4个)

/**
 * 构造函数一:
 * 构造空的HashSet,内部使用HashMap实现,
 * 并使用默认的容量16和默认装载因子0.75
 */
public HashSet() {
    map = new HashMap<>();
}

/**
 * 构造函数二:
 * 利用指定的"集合"构造HashSet
 */
public HashSet(Collection<? extends E> c) {
    map = new HashMap<>(Math.max((int) (c.size()/.75f) + 1, 16));
    addAll(c);
}

/**
 * 构造方法三:
 * 使用指定的容量和装载因子来构造HashSet
 */
public HashSet(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
    map = new HashMap<>(initialCapacity, loadFactor);
}

/**
 * 构造方法四:
 * 使用指定容量(默认装载因子)构造HashSet
 */
public HashSet(int initialCapacity) {
    map = new HashMap<>(initialCapacity);
}

/**
 * 构造方法四:
 * 以指定的initialCapacity、loadFactor和dummy构造一个LinkedHashMap。 
 * 此构造函数为包访问权限,不对外公开,实际只是是对LinkedHashSet的支持
 */
HashSet(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor, boolean dummy) {
    map = new LinkedHashMap<>(initialCapacity, loadFactor);
}

4.方法

/**
 * 返回一个迭代HashSet元素的迭代器,元素的顺序不是固定的
 */
public Iterator<E> iterator() {
    return map.keySet().iterator();
}

/**
 * 返回set中元素个数,即map大小
 */
public int size() {
    return map.size();
}

/**
 * 判空
 */
public boolean isEmpty() {
    return map.isEmpty();
}

/**
 * 判断HashSet中是否包含元素o
 */
public boolean contains(Object o) {
    return map.containsKey(o);
}

/**
 * 添加元素e,确保元素不重复
 * map中put方法说明:
 *   如果map中键e存在,则返回旧的键e对应的value值;
 *   如果map中键e不存在,则返回null
 * 返回值:有重复返回false,无重复返回true
 */
public boolean add(E e) {
    return map.put(e, PRESENT)==null;
}

/**
 * 删除元素o
 * 返回值:如果元素存在返回true,不存在返回false
 */
public boolean remove(Object o) {
    return map.remove(o)==PRESENT;
}

/**
 * 删除所有元素
 */
public void clear() {
    map.clear();
}

/**
 * 克隆一个新HashSet
 */
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public Object clone() {
    try {
        HashSet<E> newSet = (HashSet<E>) super.clone();
        newSet.map = (HashMap<E, Object>) map.clone();
        return newSet;
    } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
        throw new InternalError(e);
    }
}

========================================================================

HashSet的源码比较简单,下面是完整的源码:

/*
 * Copyright (c) 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * ORACLE PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 *
 */

package java.util;

import java.io.InvalidObjectException;

/**
 * This class implements the <tt>Set</tt> interface, backed by a hash table
 * (actually a <tt>HashMap</tt> instance).  It makes no guarantees as to the
 * iteration order of the set; in particular, it does not guarantee that the
 * order will remain constant over time.  This class permits the <tt>null</tt>
 * element.
 *
 * <p>This class offers constant time performance for the basic operations
 * (<tt>add</tt>, <tt>remove</tt>, <tt>contains</tt> and <tt>size</tt>),
 * assuming the hash function disperses the elements properly among the
 * buckets.  Iterating over this set requires time proportional to the sum of
 * the <tt>HashSet</tt> instance's size (the number of elements) plus the
 * "capacity" of the backing <tt>HashMap</tt> instance (the number of
 * buckets).  Thus, it's very important not to set the initial capacity too
 * high (or the load factor too low) if iteration performance is important.
 *
 * <p><strong>Note that this implementation is not synchronized.</strong>
 * If multiple threads access a hash set concurrently, and at least one of
 * the threads modifies the set, it <i>must</i> be synchronized externally.
 * This is typically accomplished by synchronizing on some object that
 * naturally encapsulates the set.
 *
 * If no such object exists, the set should be "wrapped" using the
 * {@link Collections#synchronizedSet Collections.synchronizedSet}
 * method.  This is best done at creation time, to prevent accidental
 * unsynchronized access to the set:<pre>
 *   Set s = Collections.synchronizedSet(new HashSet(...));</pre>
 *
 * <p>The iterators returned by this class's <tt>iterator</tt> method are
 * <i>fail-fast</i>: if the set is modified at any time after the iterator is
 * created, in any way except through the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt>
 * method, the Iterator throws a {@link ConcurrentModificationException}.
 * Thus, in the face of concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly
 * and cleanly, rather than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at
 * an undetermined time in the future.
 *
 * <p>Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed
 * as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the
 * presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification.  Fail-fast iterators
 * throw <tt>ConcurrentModificationException</tt> on a best-effort basis.
 * Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this
 * exception for its correctness: <i>the fail-fast behavior of iterators
 * should be used only to detect bugs.</i>
 *
 * <p>This class is a member of the
 * <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/collections/index.html">
 * Java Collections Framework</a>.
 *
 * @param <E> the type of elements maintained by this set
 *
 * @author  Josh Bloch
 * @author  Neal Gafter
 * @see     Collection
 * @see     Set
 * @see     TreeSet
 * @see     HashMap
 * @since   1.2
 */

public class HashSet<E>
    extends AbstractSet<E>
    implements Set<E>, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable
{
    static final long serialVersionUID = -5024744406713321676L;

    private transient HashMap<E,Object> map;

    // Dummy value to associate with an Object in the backing Map
    private static final Object PRESENT = new Object();

    /**
     * Constructs a new, empty set; the backing <tt>HashMap</tt> instance has
     * default initial capacity (16) and load factor (0.75).
     */
    public HashSet() {
        map = new HashMap<>();
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new set containing the elements in the specified
     * collection.  The <tt>HashMap</tt> is created with default load factor
     * (0.75) and an initial capacity sufficient to contain the elements in
     * the specified collection.
     *
     * @param c the collection whose elements are to be placed into this set
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
     */
    public HashSet(Collection<? extends E> c) {
        map = new HashMap<>(Math.max((int) (c.size()/.75f) + 1, 16));
        addAll(c);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new, empty set; the backing <tt>HashMap</tt> instance has
     * the specified initial capacity and the specified load factor.
     *
     * @param      initialCapacity   the initial capacity of the hash map
     * @param      loadFactor        the load factor of the hash map
     * @throws     IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is less
     *             than zero, or if the load factor is nonpositive
     */
    public HashSet(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
        map = new HashMap<>(initialCapacity, loadFactor);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new, empty set; the backing <tt>HashMap</tt> instance has
     * the specified initial capacity and default load factor (0.75).
     *
     * @param      initialCapacity   the initial capacity of the hash table
     * @throws     IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is less
     *             than zero
     */
    public HashSet(int initialCapacity) {
        map = new HashMap<>(initialCapacity);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new, empty linked hash set.  (This package private
     * constructor is only used by LinkedHashSet.) The backing
     * HashMap instance is a LinkedHashMap with the specified initial
     * capacity and the specified load factor.
     *
     * @param      initialCapacity   the initial capacity of the hash map
     * @param      loadFactor        the load factor of the hash map
     * @param      dummy             ignored (distinguishes this
     *             constructor from other int, float constructor.)
     * @throws     IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is less
     *             than zero, or if the load factor is nonpositive
     */
    HashSet(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor, boolean dummy) {
        map = new LinkedHashMap<>(initialCapacity, loadFactor);
    }

    /**
     * Returns an iterator over the elements in this set.  The elements
     * are returned in no particular order.
     *
     * @return an Iterator over the elements in this set
     * @see ConcurrentModificationException
     */
    public Iterator<E> iterator() {
        return map.keySet().iterator();
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of elements in this set (its cardinality).
     *
     * @return the number of elements in this set (its cardinality)
     */
    public int size() {
        return map.size();
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this set contains no elements.
     *
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this set contains no elements
     */
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return map.isEmpty();
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this set contains the specified element.
     * More formally, returns <tt>true</tt> if and only if this set
     * contains an element <tt>e</tt> such that
     * <tt>(o==null ? e==null : o.equals(e))</tt>.
     *
     * @param o element whose presence in this set is to be tested
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this set contains the specified element
     */
    public boolean contains(Object o) {
        return map.containsKey(o);
    }

    /**
     * Adds the specified element to this set if it is not already present.
     * More formally, adds the specified element <tt>e</tt> to this set if
     * this set contains no element <tt>e2</tt> such that
     * <tt>(e==null ? e2==null : e.equals(e2))</tt>.
     * If this set already contains the element, the call leaves the set
     * unchanged and returns <tt>false</tt>.
     *
     * @param e element to be added to this set
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this set did not already contain the specified
     * element
     */
    public boolean add(E e) {
        return map.put(e, PRESENT)==null;
    }

    /**
     * Removes the specified element from this set if it is present.
     * More formally, removes an element <tt>e</tt> such that
     * <tt>(o==null ? e==null : o.equals(e))</tt>,
     * if this set contains such an element.  Returns <tt>true</tt> if
     * this set contained the element (or equivalently, if this set
     * changed as a result of the call).  (This set will not contain the
     * element once the call returns.)
     *
     * @param o object to be removed from this set, if present
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if the set contained the specified element
     */
    public boolean remove(Object o) {
        return map.remove(o)==PRESENT;
    }

    /**
     * Removes all of the elements from this set.
     * The set will be empty after this call returns.
     */
    public void clear() {
        map.clear();
    }

    /**
     * Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>HashSet</tt> instance: the elements
     * themselves are not cloned.
     *
     * @return a shallow copy of this set
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public Object clone() {
        try {
            HashSet<E> newSet = (HashSet<E>) super.clone();
            newSet.map = (HashMap<E, Object>) map.clone();
            return newSet;
        } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
            throw new InternalError(e);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Save the state of this <tt>HashSet</tt> instance to a stream (that is,
     * serialize it).
     *
     * @serialData The capacity of the backing <tt>HashMap</tt> instance
     *             (int), and its load factor (float) are emitted, followed by
     *             the size of the set (the number of elements it contains)
     *             (int), followed by all of its elements (each an Object) in
     *             no particular order.
     */
    private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
        throws java.io.IOException {
        // Write out any hidden serialization magic
        s.defaultWriteObject();

        // Write out HashMap capacity and load factor
        s.writeInt(map.capacity());
        s.writeFloat(map.loadFactor());

        // Write out size
        s.writeInt(map.size());

        // Write out all elements in the proper order.
        for (E e : map.keySet())
            s.writeObject(e);
    }

    /**
     * Reconstitute the <tt>HashSet</tt> instance from a stream (that is,
     * deserialize it).
     */
    private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
        throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
        // Read in any hidden serialization magic
        s.defaultReadObject();

        // Read capacity and verify non-negative.
        int capacity = s.readInt();
        if (capacity < 0) {
            throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal capacity: " +
                                             capacity);
        }

        // Read load factor and verify positive and non NaN.
        float loadFactor = s.readFloat();
        if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor)) {
            throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal load factor: " +
                                             loadFactor);
        }

        // Read size and verify non-negative.
        int size = s.readInt();
        if (size < 0) {
            throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal size: " +
                                             size);
        }

        // Set the capacity according to the size and load factor ensuring that
        // the HashMap is at least 25% full but clamping to maximum capacity.
        capacity = (int) Math.min(size * Math.min(1 / loadFactor, 4.0f),
                HashMap.MAXIMUM_CAPACITY);

        // Create backing HashMap
        map = (((HashSet<?>)this) instanceof LinkedHashSet ?
               new LinkedHashMap<E,Object>(capacity, loadFactor) :
               new HashMap<E,Object>(capacity, loadFactor));

        // Read in all elements in the proper order.
        for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {
            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                E e = (E) s.readObject();
            map.put(e, PRESENT);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Creates a <em><a href="Spliterator.html#binding">late-binding</a></em>
     * and <em>fail-fast</em> {@link Spliterator} over the elements in this
     * set.
     *
     * <p>The {@code Spliterator} reports {@link Spliterator#SIZED} and
     * {@link Spliterator#DISTINCT}.  Overriding implementations should document
     * the reporting of additional characteristic values.
     *
     * @return a {@code Spliterator} over the elements in this set
     * @since 1.8
     */
    public Spliterator<E> spliterator() {
        return new HashMap.KeySpliterator<E,Object>(map, 0, -1, 0, 0);
    }
}

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