ElasticSearch6.x查询基础讲解(二)

x33g5p2x  于2021-03-14 发布在 ElasticSearch  
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query_string查询

例如:

POST my_index/_doc/_search
{
  "query":{
    "query_string":{
      "default_field":"title",
      "query":"宝马"
    }
  }
}

说明:

  • query_string查询跟url query查询类似,就是将查询条件写在json体中
  • default_field 指的是默认查询的字段
  • query 查询条件 ‘AND’ 或则 'OR'记的大写
  • fields 指定查询字段集合,数组形式,例如:['title','author']指查询title和author字段

Simple Query String Query

  • 类似Query String ,但会忽略错误的查询表达式,并且仅支持部分查询语法
  • 其常用的逻辑服务如下,不能使用 AND OR NOT 等关键字,否则当普通字符串处理
    + 代表AND
    | 代表OR
    - 代表NOT

query关键字

要搜索的body
例如:

GET /_search
{
    "query" : {
        "term" : { "user" : "kimchy" }
    }
}

from / Size

如果需要分页,则使用from和size关键字。
例如:

#从0位置开始,获取10条数据。即获取:0-10的数据
GET /_search
{
    "from" : 0, "size" : 10,
    "query" : {
        "term" : { "user" : "kimchy" }
    }
}

sort

指定结果的排序方式,可以指定某个字段排序,也可用于 _score 按分数排序,以及 _doc 按索引顺序排序
例如:

PUT /my_index
{
    "mappings": {
        "_doc": {
            "properties": {
                "post_date": { "type": "date" },
                "user": {
                    "type": "keyword"
                },
                "name": {
                    "type": "keyword"
                },
                "age": { "type": "integer" }
            }
        }
    }
}
GET /my_index/_search
{
    "sort" : [
        { "post_date" : {"order" : "asc"}},
        "user",
        { "name" : "desc" },
        { "age" : "desc" },
        "_score"
    ],
    "query" : {
        "term" : { "user" : "kimchy" }
    }
}

_source

指定结果返回的字段,默认情况下返回所有字段,也可不返回字段。

#不返回_source字段,即没有文档内容返回
POST my_index/_doc/_search
{
  "_source":false,
  "query":{
    "query_string":{
      "default_field":"title",
      "query":"宝马"
    }
  }
}
#返回结果
{
  "took": 4,
  "timed_out": false,
  "_shards": {
    "total": 5,
    "successful": 5,
    "skipped": 0,
    "failed": 0
  },
  "hits": {
    "total": 2,
    "max_score": 0.2876821,
    "hits": [
      {
        "_index": "my_index",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "2",
        "_score": 0.2876821
      },
      {
        "_index": "my_index",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "1",
        "_score": 0.2876821
      }
    ]
  }
}
#返回指定字段开头的字段
POST my_index/_doc/_search
{
  "_source":"tit*",
  "query":{
    "query_string":{
      "default_field":"title",
      "query":"宝马"
    }
  }
}
#返回结果
{
  "took": 2,
  "timed_out": false,
  "_shards": {
    "total": 5,
    "successful": 5,
    "skipped": 0,
    "failed": 0
  },
  "hits": {
    "total": 2,
    "max_score": 0.2876821,
    "hits": [
      {
        "_index": "my_index",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "2",
        "_score": 0.2876821,
        "_source": {
          "title": "我的宝马x5有260马力"
        }
      },
      {
        "_index": "my_index",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "1",
        "_score": 0.2876821,
        "_source": {
          "title": "我的宝马有222马力"
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}
#多个时可以这样用(返回以"tit"开头和"na"的字段)
POST my_index/_doc/_search
{
  "_source":["tit*","na*"],
  "query":{
    "query_string":{
      "default_field":"title",
      "query":"宝马"
    }
  }
}
#指定不返回的字段
POST my_index/_doc/_search
{
  "_source":{
    "includes":["title"],
    "excludes":["name"]
  },
  "query":{
    "query_string":{
      "default_field":"title",
      "query":"宝马"
    }
  }
}

highlight

用于高亮搜索,将搜索出来的结果用标签包裹起来,不指定标签默认"<em>"标签包裹

POST my_index/_doc/_search
{
  "query":{
    "match":{
      "title":"宝马"
    }
  },
  "highlight":{
    "fields":{
      "title":{}
    }
  }
}
#返回结果
{
  "took": 19,
  "timed_out": false,
  "_shards": {
    "total": 5,
    "successful": 5,
    "skipped": 0,
    "failed": 0
  },
  "hits": {
    "total": 2,
    "max_score": 0.2876821,
    "hits": [
      {
        "_index": "my_index",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "2",
        "_score": 0.2876821,
        "_source": {
          "name": "宝马",
          "title": "我的宝马x5有260马力"
        },
        "highlight": {
          "title": [
            "我的<em>宝马</em>x5有260马力"
          ]
        }
      },
      {
        "_index": "my_index",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "1",
        "_score": 0.2876821,
        "_source": {
          "name": "张三",
          "title": "我的宝马有222马力"
        },
        "highlight": {
          "title": [
            "我的<em>宝马</em>有222马力"
          ]
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

自定义标签

POST my_index/_doc/_search
{
  "query":{
    "match":{
      "title":"宝马"
    }
  },
  "highlight":{
    "fields":{
      "title":{
        "pre_tags":["<mark>"],
        "post_tags":["</mark>"]
      }
    }
  }
}
#返回结果
{
  "took": 6,
  "timed_out": false,
  "_shards": {
    "total": 5,
    "successful": 5,
    "skipped": 0,
    "failed": 0
  },
  "hits": {
    "total": 2,
    "max_score": 0.2876821,
    "hits": [
      {
        "_index": "my_index",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "2",
        "_score": 0.2876821,
        "_source": {
          "name": "宝马",
          "title": "我的宝马x5有260马力"
        },
        "highlight": {
          "title": [
            "我的<mark>宝马</mark>x5有260马力"
          ]
        }
      },
      {
        "_index": "my_index",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "1",
        "_score": 0.2876821,
        "_source": {
          "name": "张三",
          "title": "我的宝马有222马力"
        },
        "highlight": {
          "title": [
            "我的<mark>宝马</mark>有222马力"
          ]
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

多字段高亮

POST my_index/_doc/_search
{
  "query":{
    "match":{
      "title":"宝马"
    }
  },
  "highlight":{
    "require_field_match":false,
    "fields":{
      "title":{
        "pre_tags":["<mark>"],
        "post_tags":["</mark>"]
      },
      "name":{}
    }
  }
}
#返回结果
{
  "took": 5,
  "timed_out": false,
  "_shards": {
    "total": 5,
    "successful": 5,
    "skipped": 0,
    "failed": 0
  },
  "hits": {
    "total": 2,
    "max_score": 0.2876821,
    "hits": [
      {
        "_index": "my_index",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "2",
        "_score": 0.2876821,
        "_source": {
          "name": "宝马",
          "title": "我的宝马x5有260马力"
        },
        "highlight": {
          "name": [
            "<em>宝马</em>"
          ],
          "title": [
            "我的<mark>宝马</mark>x5有260马力"
          ]
        }
      },
      {
        "_index": "my_index",
        "_type": "_doc",
        "_id": "1",
        "_score": 0.2876821,
        "_source": {
          "name": "张三",
          "title": "我的宝马有222马力"
        },
        "highlight": {
          "title": [
            "我的<mark>宝马</mark>有222马力"
          ]
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

说明:默认情况下只高亮显示被索引的字段,即:require_filed_match 默认为 true,当 require_filed_match 为 false时,未被索引的字段也可以被高亮显示。

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