性能监控之 Golang 应用接入 Prometheus 监控

x33g5p2x  于10个月前 转载在 Go  
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一、前言

Prometheus 提供了 官方版 Golang 库 用于采集并暴露监控数据,本文快速为你介绍如何使用官方版 Golang 库来暴露 Golang runtime 相关的数据,以及其它一些基本简单的示例,并使用 Prometheus 监控服务来采集指标展示数据。

TIPS:
有关全面的 API 文档,请参见 Prometheus 的各种 Go 库的 GoDoc 文档。

二、安装

通过 go get 命令来安装相关依赖库,示例如下:

go get github.com/prometheus/client_golang/prometheus
go get github.com/prometheus/client_golang/prometheus/promauto
go get github.com/prometheus/client_golang/prometheus/promhttp

安装所需的 prometheus, promauto 和 promhttp 库。

$ time go get github.com/prometheus/client_golang/prometheus

real    0m2.054s
user    0m0.000s
sys     0m0.015s

$ time go get github.com/prometheus/client_golang/prometheus/promauto

real    0m4.368s
user    0m0.000s
sys     0m0.015s

$ time go get github.com/prometheus/client_golang/prometheus/promhttp

real    0m3.109s
user    0m0.000s
sys     0m0.047s

三、快速开始(运行时指标)

准备一个 HTTP 服务,路径通常使用 /metrics。可以直接使用 prometheus/promhttp 里提供的 Handler 函数。
如下是一个简单的示例应用,通过 http://localhost:2112/metrics 暴露 Golang 应用的一些默认指标数据(包括运行时指标、进程相关指标以及构建相关的指标):

package main

import (
	"net/http"

	"github.com/prometheus/client_golang/prometheus/promhttp"
)

func main() {
	//提供 /metrics HTTP 端点
	http.Handle("/metrics", promhttp.Handler())
	//端口号
	http.ListenAndServe(":2112", nil)
}

执行以下命令启动应用:

go run main.go

执行以下命令,访问基础内置指标数据:

curl http://localhost:2112/metrics
# HELP go_gc_duration_seconds A summary of the pause duration of garbage collection cycles.
# TYPE go_gc_duration_seconds summary
go_gc_duration_seconds{quantile="0"} 0
go_gc_duration_seconds{quantile="0.25"} 0
go_gc_duration_seconds{quantile="0.5"} 0
go_gc_duration_seconds{quantile="0.75"} 0
go_gc_duration_seconds{quantile="1"} 0
go_gc_duration_seconds_sum 0
go_gc_duration_seconds_count 0
# HELP go_goroutines Number of goroutines that currently exist.
# TYPE go_goroutines gauge
go_goroutines 7
# HELP go_info Information about the Go environment.
# TYPE go_info gauge
go_info{version="go1.16.7"} 1
# HELP go_memstats_alloc_bytes Number of bytes allocated and still in use.
# TYPE go_memstats_alloc_bytes gauge
go_memstats_alloc_bytes 611920
# HELP go_memstats_alloc_bytes_total Total number of bytes allocated, even if freed.
# TYPE go_memstats_alloc_bytes_total counter
go_memstats_alloc_bytes_total 611920
# HELP go_memstats_buck_hash_sys_bytes Number of bytes used by the profiling bucket hash table.
# TYPE go_memstats_buck_hash_sys_bytes gauge
go_memstats_buck_hash_sys_bytes 4081
# HELP go_memstats_frees_total Total number of frees.
# TYPE go_memstats_frees_total counter
go_memstats_frees_total 112
# HELP go_memstats_gc_cpu_fraction The fraction of this program's available CPU time used by the GC since the program started.
# TYPE go_memstats_gc_cpu_fraction gauge
go_memstats_gc_cpu_fraction 0
# HELP go_memstats_gc_sys_bytes Number of bytes used for garbage collection system metadata.
# TYPE go_memstats_gc_sys_bytes gauge
go_memstats_gc_sys_bytes 3.962144e+06
# HELP go_memstats_heap_alloc_bytes Number of heap bytes allocated and still in use.
# TYPE go_memstats_heap_alloc_bytes gauge
go_memstats_heap_alloc_bytes 611920
# HELP go_memstats_heap_idle_bytes Number of heap bytes waiting to be used.
# TYPE go_memstats_heap_idle_bytes gauge
go_memstats_heap_idle_bytes 6.5273856e+07
# HELP go_memstats_heap_inuse_bytes Number of heap bytes that are in use.
# TYPE go_memstats_heap_inuse_bytes gauge
go_memstats_heap_inuse_bytes 1.47456e+06
# HELP go_memstats_heap_objects Number of allocated objects.
# TYPE go_memstats_heap_objects gauge
go_memstats_heap_objects 2296
# HELP go_memstats_heap_released_bytes Number of heap bytes released to OS.
# TYPE go_memstats_heap_released_bytes gauge
go_memstats_heap_released_bytes 6.5273856e+07
# HELP go_memstats_heap_sys_bytes Number of heap bytes obtained from system.
# TYPE go_memstats_heap_sys_bytes gauge
go_memstats_heap_sys_bytes 6.6748416e+07
# HELP go_memstats_last_gc_time_seconds Number of seconds since 1970 of last garbage collection.
# TYPE go_memstats_last_gc_time_seconds gauge
go_memstats_last_gc_time_seconds 0
# HELP go_memstats_lookups_total Total number of pointer lookups.
# TYPE go_memstats_lookups_total counter
go_memstats_lookups_total 0
# HELP go_memstats_mallocs_total Total number of mallocs.
# TYPE go_memstats_mallocs_total counter
go_memstats_mallocs_total 2408
# HELP go_memstats_mcache_inuse_bytes Number of bytes in use by mcache structures.
# TYPE go_memstats_mcache_inuse_bytes gauge
go_memstats_mcache_inuse_bytes 14400
# HELP go_memstats_mcache_sys_bytes Number of bytes used for mcache structures obtained from system.
# TYPE go_memstats_mcache_sys_bytes gauge
go_memstats_mcache_sys_bytes 16384
# HELP go_memstats_mspan_inuse_bytes Number of bytes in use by mspan structures.
# TYPE go_memstats_mspan_inuse_bytes gauge
go_memstats_mspan_inuse_bytes 37672
# HELP go_memstats_mspan_sys_bytes Number of bytes used for mspan structures obtained from system.
# TYPE go_memstats_mspan_sys_bytes gauge
go_memstats_mspan_sys_bytes 49152
# HELP go_memstats_next_gc_bytes Number of heap bytes when next garbage collection will take place.
# TYPE go_memstats_next_gc_bytes gauge
go_memstats_next_gc_bytes 4.473924e+06
# HELP go_memstats_other_sys_bytes Number of bytes used for other system allocations.
# TYPE go_memstats_other_sys_bytes gauge
go_memstats_other_sys_bytes 1.033983e+06
# HELP go_memstats_stack_inuse_bytes Number of bytes in use by the stack allocator.
# TYPE go_memstats_stack_inuse_bytes gauge
go_memstats_stack_inuse_bytes 360448
# HELP go_memstats_stack_sys_bytes Number of bytes obtained from system for stack allocator.
# TYPE go_memstats_stack_sys_bytes gauge
go_memstats_stack_sys_bytes 360448
# HELP go_memstats_sys_bytes Number of bytes obtained from system.
# TYPE go_memstats_sys_bytes gauge
go_memstats_sys_bytes 7.2174608e+07
# HELP go_threads Number of OS threads created.
# TYPE go_threads gauge
go_threads 7
# HELP promhttp_metric_handler_requests_in_flight Current number of scrapes being served.
# TYPE promhttp_metric_handler_requests_in_flight gauge
promhttp_metric_handler_requests_in_flight 1
# HELP promhttp_metric_handler_requests_total Total number of scrapes by HTTP status code.
# TYPE promhttp_metric_handler_requests_total counter
promhttp_metric_handler_requests_total{code="200"} 0
promhttp_metric_handler_requests_total{code="500"} 0
promhttp_metric_handler_requests_total{code="503"} 0

四、应用层面指标

应用程序仅公开默认的 Go 指标。我们还可以注册自定义应用程序指定指标。
如下示例应用程序公开了 myapp_processed_ops_total计数器,该计数器对到目前为止已处理的操作数量进行计数。每 2 秒,计数器增加 1。

package main

import (
	"net/http"
	"time"

	"github.com/prometheus/client_golang/prometheus"
	"github.com/prometheus/client_golang/prometheus/promauto"
	"github.com/prometheus/client_golang/prometheus/promhttp"
)

func recordMetrics() {
	//每2秒,计数器增加1。
	go func() {
		for {
			opsProcessed.Inc()
			time.Sleep(2 * time.Second)
		}
	}()
}

//公开了 myapp_processed_ops_total 计数器
var (
	opsProcessed = promauto.NewCounter(prometheus.CounterOpts{
		Name: "myapp_processed_ops_total",
		Help: "The total number of processed events",
	})
)

func main() {
	recordMetrics()

	http.Handle("/metrics", promhttp.Handler())
	http.ListenAndServe(":2112", nil)
}

执行以下命令启动应用:

go run main.go

执行以下命令,访问暴露的指标:

curl http://localhost:2112/metrics

从输出结果我们可以看到 myapp_processed_ops_total 计数器相关的信息,包括帮助文本、类型信息、指标名和当前值。

如下所示:

......
# HELP myapp_processed_ops_total The total number of processed events
# TYPE myapp_processed_ops_total counter
myapp_processed_ops_total 4
......

我们可以配置一个 Prometheus 实例,从应用程序中获取指标。这是一个 prometheus.yml 配置示例:

scrape_configs:
- job_name: myapp
  scrape_interval: 10s
  static_configs:
  - targets:
    - 172.16.106.251:2112

五、总结

本文通过两个示例展示了如何将 Golang 相关的指标暴露给 Prometheus 监控服务,以及如何使用内置的可视化的图表查看监控数据。

本文只使用了计数类型 Counter 的指标,对于其它场景可能还需要 Gauge,Histgram 以及 Summary 类型的指标,指标类型

源码地址:

参考资料:

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