Python接口测试之requests

x33g5p2x  于11个月前 转载在 Python  
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1.简介

requests是一个很实用的Python HTTP客户端库,编写爬虫和测试服务器响应数据时
经常会用到,Requests是Python语言的第三方的库,专门用于发送HTTP请求

2.前提

要下载requests

pip install requests

3.Get请求

1.无参数请求

r=requests.get('http://www.baidu.com')

2.有参数请求

payload = {'key1': 'value1', 'key2': 'value2', 'key3': None}
r = requests.get('http://www.baidu.com ', params=payload)

案例:

import requests
class UseRequest():
    # get传参的第一种方式
    def GetMethod(self):
        r=requests.get("http://v.juhe.cn/toutiao/index?type=guonei&key=4b72107"
                       "de3a197b3bafd9adacf685790")
        print(r.text)
    # get传参的第二种方式
    def GetMethod1(self):
        params = {"type": "guonei", "key": "4b72107de3a197b3bafd9adacf685790"}
        r = requests.get("http://v.juhe.cn/toutiao/index", params=params)
        print(r)

u=UseRequest()
u.GetMethod()
u.GetMethod1()

4.Post请求

类似python中的表单提交

payload = {'key1': 'value1', 'key2': 'value2'}
 r = requests.post("http://httpbin.org/post", data=payload)

案例:

import requests
class UseRequest():
    # post传参的方式
    def PostMethod(self):
        params = {"type": "guonei", "key": "4b72107de3a197b3bafd9adacf685790"}
        r = requests.post("http://v.juhe.cn/toutiao/index", data=params)
        print(r.status_code)
        # return r.status_code

u=UseRequest()
u.PostMethod()

5.requests响应

print(r.status_code)  # 响应状态码
print(r.headers)  # 响应头
print(r.cookies)  # 响应cookie
print(r.text)  #响应文本
print(r.encoding)  # 当前编码
print(r.content)  #以字节形式(二进制)返回

最常用的是根据响应状态码判断接口是否连通,经常用于做接口中断言判断

6.requests扩充

1:添加等待时间
requests.get(url,timeout=1)          #超过等待时间则报错
2:添加请求头信息
requests.get(url,headers=headers)    #设置请求头
3:添加文件
requests.post(url, files=files)      #添加文件

文件传输

url = 'http://httpbin.org/post'
files = {'file': open('report.xls', 'rb')}
r = requests.post(url, files=files)

7.requests+pytest+allure

流程如下

读取文件中的数据
requests拿到数据请求接口返回状态码
通过断言验证返回状态码和200对比
生成allure的测试报告

读取csv文件流程

1.存储数据

2.读取数据

import csv
class ReadCsv():
    def readCsv(self):
        item = []
        rr = csv.reader(open("../data/test_csv.csv"))
        for csv_i in rr:
            item.append(csv_i)
        del item[0]
        return item
r=ReadCsv()
print(r.readCsv())

3.requests请求接口返回状态码

import requests
from readdata.readcsv import ReadCsv

r=ReadCsv()
lists=r.readCsv()
items=[]
class RequestsClass():
    def requestMethod(self):
        for i in lists:
            if i[2]=='get':
                r=requests.get(i[0],params=i[1])
                items.append(r.status_code)
            else:
                r = requests.post(i[0], data=i[1])
                items.append(r.status_code)
        return items
req=RequestsClass()
print(req.requestMethod())

4.pytest断言设置并结合allure生成测试报告

import pytest,os
from requestsdemo.requestcsv import RequestsClass
r=RequestsClass()
rr=r.requestMethod()

class TestRequestsClass():
    def testCsv(self):
        for i in rr:
            assert i==200

if __name__ == '__main__':
    pytest.main(['--alluredir', 'report/result', 'test_csv.py'])
    split = 'allure ' + 'generate ' + './report/result ' + '-o ' + './report/html ' + '--clean'
    os.system(split)

5.测试报告展示

读取excel文件流程

1.存储数据

2.读取数据

from openpyxl import load_workbook
class UseExcel():
    def get_TestExcel(self):
        # 打开表
        workbook = load_workbook('../data/test_exc.xlsx')
        # 定位表单
        sheet = workbook['Sheet1']
        print(sheet.max_row)     #3 行
        print(sheet.max_column)  #3 列
        test_data = []#把所有行的数据放到列表中
        for i in range(2,sheet.max_row+1):
            sub_data = {}#把每行的数据放到字典中
            for j in range(1,sheet.max_column+1):
                sub_data[sheet.cell(1,j).value] = sheet.cell(i,j).value
            test_data.append(sub_data)#拼接每行单元格的数据
        return test_data
t = UseExcel()
f = t.get_TestExcel()
print(f)

3.requests请求接口返回状态码

import requests
from readdata.readexcel import UseExcel
u=UseExcel()
lists=u.get_TestExcel()
items=[]
class RequestsExcClass():
    def requestExcMethod(self):
        for i in lists:
            if i.get('method')=='get':
                r=requests.get(i['url'],params=i['params'])
                items.append(r.status_code)
            else:
                r = requests.post(i['url'], data=i['params'])
                items.append(r.status_code)
        return items

r=RequestsExcClass()
print(r.requestExcMethod())

4.pytest断言设置并结合allure生成测试报告

import pytest,os
from requestsdemo.requestexc import RequestsExcClass
r=RequestsExcClass()
lists=r.requestExcMethod()

class TestRequestsClass():
    def testMethod(self):
        for i in lists:
            assert i==200

if __name__ == '__main__':
    # 生成测试报告json
    pytest.main(['--alluredir', 'report/result', 'test_exc.py'])
    # 将测试报告转为html格式
    split = 'allure ' + 'generate ' + './report/result ' + '-o ' + './report/html ' + '--clean'
    os.system(split)

5.测试报告展示

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