Spring Boot 文件上传/下载 Rest API 示例

x33g5p2x  于10个月前 转载在 Java  
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上传和下载文件是非常常见的任务,开发人员需要在他们的应用程序中编写代码。

在本文中,您将学习如何在 RESTful Spring Boot Web 服务中上传和下载文件。

我们将首先构建用于上传和下载文件的 REST API,然后使用 Postman 测试这些 API。我们还将用 javascript 编写前端代码来上传文件。

以下是我们应用程序的最终版本 -


好吧!让我们开始吧。

创建应用程序

让我们使用 Spring Boot CLI 生成我们的应用程序。启动您的终端,然后键入以下命令以生成应用程序 -

$ spring init --name=file-demo --dependencies=web file-demo
Using service at https://start.spring.io
Project extracted to '/Users/rajeevkumarsingh/spring-boot/file-demo'

您也可以按照以下说明通过 Spring Initializr Web 工具生成应用程序 -

  1. 打开http://start.spring.io
  2. 在“Artifact”字段中输入file-demo
  3. 在“包”字段中输入 com.example.filedemo
  4. 在“依赖项”部分添加Web
    1、点击Generate生成并下载工程。

就是这样!您现在可以解压缩下载的应用程序存档并将其导入您喜欢的 IDE。

配置服务器和文件存储属性

第一件事! 让我们配置我们的 Spring Boot 应用程序以启用 Multipart 文件上传,并定义可以上传的最大文件大小。我们还将配置存储所有上传文件的目录。

打开 src/main/resources/application.properties 文件,并向其添加以下属性 -

## MULTIPART (MultipartProperties)
# Enable multipart uploads
spring.servlet.multipart.enabled=true
# Threshold after which files are written to disk.
spring.servlet.multipart.file-size-threshold=2KB
# Max file size.
spring.servlet.multipart.max-file-size=200MB
# Max Request Size
spring.servlet.multipart.max-request-size=215MB

## File Storage Properties
# All files uploaded through the REST API will be stored in this directory
file.upload-dir=/Users/callicoder/uploads

注意:请将 file.upload-dir 属性更改为您要存储上传文件的路径。

自动将属性绑定到 POJO 类

Spring Boot 有一个很棒的特性,叫做 @ConfigurationProperties,你可以使用它自动将 application.properties 文件中定义的属性绑定到 POJO 类。

让我们在 com.example.filedemo.property 包内定义一个名为 FileStorageProperties 的 POJO 类来绑定所有文件存储属性 -

package com.example.filedemo.property;

import org.springframework.boot.context.properties.ConfigurationProperties;

@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "file")
public class FileStorageProperties {
    private String uploadDir;

    public String getUploadDir() {
        return uploadDir;
    }

    public void setUploadDir(String uploadDir) {
        this.uploadDir = uploadDir;
    }
}

@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "file") 注释在应用程序启动时完成它的工作,并将所有带有前缀 file 的属性绑定到 POJO 类的相应字段。

如果以后定义额外的 file 属性,只需在上面的类中添加相应的字段,spring boot 会自动将字段与属性值绑定。

启用配置属性

现在,要启用 ConfigurationProperties 功能,您需要向任何配置类添加 @EnableConfigurationProperties 注释。

打开主类 src/main/java/com/example/filedemo/FileDemoApplication.java,然后像这样添加 @EnableConfigurationProperties 注释 -

package com.example.filedemo;

import com.example.filedemo.property.FileStorageProperties;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.context.properties.EnableConfigurationProperties;

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableConfigurationProperties({
        FileStorageProperties.class
})
public class FileDemoApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(FileDemoApplication.class, args);
    }
}

为文件上传和下载编写 API

现在让我们编写用于上传和下载文件的 REST API。在 com.example.filedemo.controller 包中创建一个名为 FileController 的新控制器类。

这是 FileController 的完整代码 -

package com.example.filedemo.controller;

import com.example.filedemo.payload.UploadFileResponse;
import com.example.filedemo.service.FileStorageService;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.core.io.Resource;
import org.springframework.http.HttpHeaders;
import org.springframework.http.MediaType;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.*;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartFile;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.support.ServletUriComponentsBuilder;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;

@RestController
public class FileController {

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(FileController.class);

    @Autowired
    private FileStorageService fileStorageService;
    
    @PostMapping("/uploadFile")
    public UploadFileResponse uploadFile(@RequestParam("file") MultipartFile file) {
        String fileName = fileStorageService.storeFile(file);

        String fileDownloadUri = ServletUriComponentsBuilder.fromCurrentContextPath()
                .path("/downloadFile/")
                .path(fileName)
                .toUriString();

        return new UploadFileResponse(fileName, fileDownloadUri,
                file.getContentType(), file.getSize());
    }

    @PostMapping("/uploadMultipleFiles")
    public List<UploadFileResponse> uploadMultipleFiles(@RequestParam("files") MultipartFile[] files) {
        return Arrays.asList(files)
                .stream()
                .map(file -> uploadFile(file))
                .collect(Collectors.toList());
    }

    @GetMapping("/downloadFile/{fileName:.+}")
    public ResponseEntity<Resource> downloadFile(@PathVariable String fileName, HttpServletRequest request) {
        // Load file as Resource
        Resource resource = fileStorageService.loadFileAsResource(fileName);

        // Try to determine file's content type
        String contentType = null;
        try {
            contentType = request.getServletContext().getMimeType(resource.getFile().getAbsolutePath());
        } catch (IOException ex) {
            logger.info("Could not determine file type.");
        }

        // Fallback to the default content type if type could not be determined
        if(contentType == null) {
            contentType = "application/octet-stream";
        }

        return ResponseEntity.ok()
                .contentType(MediaType.parseMediaType(contentType))
                .header(HttpHeaders.CONTENT_DISPOSITION, "attachment; filename=\"" + resource.getFilename() + "\"")
                .body(resource);
    }
}

FileController 类使用 FileStorageService 在文件系统中存储文件并检索它们。上传完成后,它会返回类型为 UploadFileResponse 的负载。让我们一一定义这些类。

上传文件响应

顾名思义,此类用于返回来自 /uploadFile/uploadMultipleFiles API 的响应。

使用以下内容在 com.example.filedemo.payload 包中创建 UploadFileResponse 类 -

package com.example.filedemo.payload;

public class UploadFileResponse {
    private String fileName;
    private String fileDownloadUri;
    private String fileType;
    private long size;

    public UploadFileResponse(String fileName, String fileDownloadUri, String fileType, long size) {
        this.fileName = fileName;
        this.fileDownloadUri = fileDownloadUri;
        this.fileType = fileType;
        this.size = size;
    }

	// Getters and Setters (Omitted for brevity)
}

用于在文件系统中存储文件并检索它们的服务

现在让我们编写用于在文件系统中存储文件并检索它们的服务。在 com.example.filedemo.service 包中创建一个名为 FileStorageService.java 的新类,其内容如下:

package com.example.filedemo.service;

import com.example.filedemo.exception.FileStorageException;
import com.example.filedemo.exception.MyFileNotFoundException;
import com.example.filedemo.property.FileStorageProperties;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.core.io.Resource;
import org.springframework.core.io.UrlResource;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
import org.springframework.util.StringUtils;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartFile;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.MalformedURLException;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.nio.file.StandardCopyOption;

@Service
public class FileStorageService {

    private final Path fileStorageLocation;

    @Autowired
    public FileStorageService(FileStorageProperties fileStorageProperties) {
        this.fileStorageLocation = Paths.get(fileStorageProperties.getUploadDir())
                .toAbsolutePath().normalize();

        try {
            Files.createDirectories(this.fileStorageLocation);
        } catch (Exception ex) {
            throw new FileStorageException("Could not create the directory where the uploaded files will be stored.", ex);
        }
    }

    public String storeFile(MultipartFile file) {
        // Normalize file name
        String fileName = StringUtils.cleanPath(file.getOriginalFilename());

        try {
            // Check if the file's name contains invalid characters
            if(fileName.contains("..")) {
                throw new FileStorageException("Sorry! Filename contains invalid path sequence " + fileName);
            }

            // Copy file to the target location (Replacing existing file with the same name)
            Path targetLocation = this.fileStorageLocation.resolve(fileName);
            Files.copy(file.getInputStream(), targetLocation, StandardCopyOption.REPLACE_EXISTING);

            return fileName;
        } catch (IOException ex) {
            throw new FileStorageException("Could not store file " + fileName + ". Please try again!", ex);
        }
    }

    public Resource loadFileAsResource(String fileName) {
        try {
            Path filePath = this.fileStorageLocation.resolve(fileName).normalize();
            Resource resource = new UrlResource(filePath.toUri());
            if(resource.exists()) {
                return resource;
            } else {
                throw new MyFileNotFoundException("File not found " + fileName);
            }
        } catch (MalformedURLException ex) {
            throw new MyFileNotFoundException("File not found " + fileName, ex);
        }
    }
}

异常类

FileStorageService 类会在出现意外情况时抛出一些异常。以下是这些异常类的定义(所有异常类都在包 com.example.filedemo.exception 中)。

1. 文件存储异常

当在文件系统中存储文件时发生意外情况时抛出 -

package com.example.filedemo.exception;

public class FileStorageException extends RuntimeException {
    public FileStorageException(String message) {
        super(message);
    }

    public FileStorageException(String message, Throwable cause) {
        super(message, cause);
    }
}

2. MyFileNotFoundException

当未找到用户尝试下载的文件时抛出。

package com.example.filedemo.exception;

import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ResponseStatus;

@ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND)
public class MyFileNotFoundException extends RuntimeException {
    public MyFileNotFoundException(String message) {
        super(message);
    }

    public MyFileNotFoundException(String message, Throwable cause) {
        super(message, cause);
    }
}

请注意,我们已经用 @ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND) 注释了上述异常类。这可以确保 Spring boot 在抛出此异常时以 404 Not Found 状态响应。

通过 Postman 运行应用程序并测试 API

我们已经完成了后端 API 的开发。让我们运行应用程序并通过 Postman 测试 API。从项目的根目录键入以下命令以运行应用程序 -

mvn spring-boot:run

启动后,可以在 http://localhost:8080 处访问该应用程序。

1. 上传文件

2. 上传多个文件

3. 下载文件

开发前端

我们的后端 API 运行良好。现在让我们编写前端代码,让用户从我们的 Web 应用程序上传和下载文件。

所有前端文件都将放在 src/main/resources/static 文件夹中。以下是我们前端代码的目录结构——

static
  └── css
       └── main.css
  └── js
       └── main.js
  └── index.html

一些 HTML

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0, minimum-scale=1.0">
        <title>Spring Boot File Upload / Download Rest API Example</title>
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="/css/main.css" />
    </head>
    <body>
        <noscript>
            <h2>Sorry! Your browser doesn't support Javascript</h2>
        </noscript>
        <div class="upload-container">
            <div class="upload-header">
                <h2>Spring Boot File Upload / Download Rest API Example</h2>
            </div>
            <div class="upload-content">
                <div class="single-upload">
                    <h3>Upload Single File</h3>
                    <form id="singleUploadForm" name="singleUploadForm">
                        <input id="singleFileUploadInput" type="file" name="file" class="file-input" required />
                        <button type="submit" class="primary submit-btn">Submit</button>
                    </form>
                    <div class="upload-response">
                        <div id="singleFileUploadError"></div>
                        <div id="singleFileUploadSuccess"></div>
                    </div>
                </div>
                <div class="multiple-upload">
                    <h3>Upload Multiple Files</h3>
                    <form id="multipleUploadForm" name="multipleUploadForm">
                        <input id="multipleFileUploadInput" type="file" name="files" class="file-input" multiple required />
                        <button type="submit" class="primary submit-btn">Submit</button>
                    </form>
                    <div class="upload-response">
                        <div id="multipleFileUploadError"></div>
                        <div id="multipleFileUploadSuccess"></div>
                    </div>
                </div>
            </div>
        </div>
        <script src="/js/main.js" ></script>
    </body>
</html>

一些 Javascript

'use strict';

var singleUploadForm = document.querySelector('#singleUploadForm');
var singleFileUploadInput = document.querySelector('#singleFileUploadInput');
var singleFileUploadError = document.querySelector('#singleFileUploadError');
var singleFileUploadSuccess = document.querySelector('#singleFileUploadSuccess');

var multipleUploadForm = document.querySelector('#multipleUploadForm');
var multipleFileUploadInput = document.querySelector('#multipleFileUploadInput');
var multipleFileUploadError = document.querySelector('#multipleFileUploadError');
var multipleFileUploadSuccess = document.querySelector('#multipleFileUploadSuccess');

function uploadSingleFile(file) {
    var formData = new FormData();
    formData.append("file", file);

    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
    xhr.open("POST", "/uploadFile");

    xhr.onload = function() {
        console.log(xhr.responseText);
        var response = JSON.parse(xhr.responseText);
        if(xhr.status == 200) {
            singleFileUploadError.style.display = "none";
            singleFileUploadSuccess.innerHTML = "<p>File Uploaded Successfully.</p><p>DownloadUrl : <a href='" + response.fileDownloadUri + "' target='_blank'>" + response.fileDownloadUri + "</a></p>";
            singleFileUploadSuccess.style.display = "block";
        } else {
            singleFileUploadSuccess.style.display = "none";
            singleFileUploadError.innerHTML = (response && response.message) || "Some Error Occurred";
        }
    }

    xhr.send(formData);
}

function uploadMultipleFiles(files) {
    var formData = new FormData();
    for(var index = 0; index < files.length; index++) {
        formData.append("files", files[index]);
    }

    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
    xhr.open("POST", "/uploadMultipleFiles");

    xhr.onload = function() {
        console.log(xhr.responseText);
        var response = JSON.parse(xhr.responseText);
        if(xhr.status == 200) {
            multipleFileUploadError.style.display = "none";
            var content = "<p>All Files Uploaded Successfully</p>";
            for(var i = 0; i < response.length; i++) {
                content += "<p>DownloadUrl : <a href='" + response[i].fileDownloadUri + "' target='_blank'>" + response[i].fileDownloadUri + "</a></p>";
            }
            multipleFileUploadSuccess.innerHTML = content;
            multipleFileUploadSuccess.style.display = "block";
        } else {
            multipleFileUploadSuccess.style.display = "none";
            multipleFileUploadError.innerHTML = (response && response.message) || "Some Error Occurred";
        }
    }

    xhr.send(formData);
}


singleUploadForm.addEventListener('submit', function(event){
    var files = singleFileUploadInput.files;
    if(files.length === 0) {
        singleFileUploadError.innerHTML = "Please select a file";
        singleFileUploadError.style.display = "block";
    }
    uploadSingleFile(files[0]);
    event.preventDefault();
}, true);


multipleUploadForm.addEventListener('submit', function(event){
    var files = multipleFileUploadInput.files;
    if(files.length === 0) {
        multipleFileUploadError.innerHTML = "Please select at least one file";
        multipleFileUploadError.style.display = "block";
    }
    uploadMultipleFiles(files);
    event.preventDefault();
}, true);

上面的代码是不言自明的。我使用 XMLHttpRequestFormData 对象将文件上传为 multipart/form-data

和一些 CSS

* {
    -webkit-box-sizing: border-box;
    -moz-box-sizing: border-box;
    box-sizing: border-box;
}

body {
    margin: 0;
    padding: 0;
    font-weight: 400;
    font-family: "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;
    font-size: 1rem;
    line-height: 1.58;
    color: #333;
    background-color: #f4f4f4;
}

body:before {
    height: 50%;
    width: 100%;
    position: absolute;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    background: #128ff2;
    content: "";
    z-index: 0;
}

.clearfix:after {
    display: block;
    content: "";
    clear: both;
}


h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 {
    margin-top: 20px;
    margin-bottom: 20px;
}

h1 {
    font-size: 1.7em;
}

a {
    color: #128ff2;
}

button {
    box-shadow: none;
    border: 1px solid transparent;
    font-size: 14px;
    outline: none;
    line-height: 100%;
    white-space: nowrap;
    vertical-align: middle;
    padding: 0.6rem 1rem;
    border-radius: 2px;
    transition: all 0.2s ease-in-out;
    cursor: pointer;
    min-height: 38px;
}

button.primary {
    background-color: #128ff2;
    box-shadow: 0 2px 2px 0 rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.12);
    color: #fff;
}

input {
    font-size: 1rem;
}

input[type="file"] {
    border: 1px solid #128ff2;
    padding: 6px;
    max-width: 100%;
}

.file-input {
    width: 100%;
}

.submit-btn {
    display: block;
    margin-top: 15px;
    min-width: 100px;
}

@media screen and (min-width: 500px) {
    .file-input {
        width: calc(100% - 115px);
    }

    .submit-btn {
        display: inline-block;
        margin-top: 0;
        margin-left: 10px;
    }
}

.upload-container {
      max-width: 700px;
      margin-left: auto;
      margin-right: auto;
      background-color: #fff;
      box-shadow: 0 1px 11px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.27);
      margin-top: 60px;
      min-height: 400px;
      position: relative;
      padding: 20px;
}

.upload-header {
    border-bottom: 1px solid #ececec;
}

.upload-header h2 {
    font-weight: 500;
}

.single-upload {
    padding-bottom: 20px;
    margin-bottom: 20px;
    border-bottom: 1px solid #e8e8e8;
}

.upload-response {
    overflow-x: hidden;
    word-break: break-all;
}

如果你使用 JQuery

如果您更喜欢使用g jQuery 而不是 vanilla javascript,然后你可以像这样使用 jQuery.ajax() 方法上传文件 -

$('#singleUploadForm').submit(function(event) {
    var formElement = this;
    // You can directly create form data from the form element
    // (Or you could get the files from input element and append them to FormData as we did in vanilla javascript)
    var formData = new FormData(formElement);

    $.ajax({
        type: "POST",
        enctype: 'multipart/form-data',
        url: "/uploadFile",
        data: formData,
        processData: false,
        contentType: false,
        success: function (response) {
            console.log(response);
            // process response
        },
        error: function (error) {
            console.log(error);
            // process error
        }
    });

    event.preventDefault();
});

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