Scala简单构建工具

x33g5p2x  于2021-03-14 发布在 Scala  
字(13.8k)|赞(0)|评价(0)|浏览(170)

关于SBT

SBT是一个现代化的构建工具。虽然它由Scala编写并提供了很多Scala便利,但它是一个通用的构建工具。

为什么选择SBT?

  • 明智的依赖管理
    • 使用Ivy做依赖管理
    • “只在请求时更新”的模型
  • 对创建任务全面的Scala语言支持
  • 连续执行命令
  • 在项目上下文内启动解释器

入门

译注 最新的SBT安装方式请参考 scala-sbt的文档

  • 下载jar包 地址
  • 创建一个调用这个jar的SBT shell脚本,例如
java -Xmx512M -jar sbt-launch.jar "$@"
  • 确保它是可执行的,并在你的path下
  • 运行sbt来创建项目
[local ~/projects]$ sbt
Project does not exist, create new project? (y/N/s) y
Name: sample
Organization: com.twitter
Version [1.0]: 1.0-SNAPSHOT
Scala version [2.7.7]: 2.8.1
sbt version [0.7.4]:      
Getting Scala 2.7.7 ...
:: retrieving :: org.scala-tools.sbt#boot-scala
	confs: [default]
	2 artifacts copied, 0 already retrieved (9911kB/221ms)
Getting org.scala-tools.sbt sbt_2.7.7 0.7.4 ...
:: retrieving :: org.scala-tools.sbt#boot-app
	confs: [default]
	15 artifacts copied, 0 already retrieved (4096kB/167ms)
[success] Successfully initialized directory structure.
Getting Scala 2.8.1 ...
:: retrieving :: org.scala-tools.sbt#boot-scala
	confs: [default]
	2 artifacts copied, 0 already retrieved (15118kB/386ms)
[info] Building project sample 1.0-SNAPSHOT against Scala 2.8.1
[info]    using sbt.DefaultProject with sbt 0.7.4 and Scala 2.7.7
> 

可以看到它已经以较好的形式创建了项目的快照版本。

项目布局

  • 项目 – 项目定义文件
    • project/build/.scala – 主项目定义文件
    • project/build.properties – 项目、sbt和Scala版本定义
  • src/main – 你的应用程序代码出现在这里,在子目录表明代码的语言(如src/main/scala, src/main/java)
  • src/main/resources – 你想要添加到jar包中的静态文件(如日志配置)
  • src/test – 就像src/main,不过是对测试
  • lib_managed – 你的项目依赖的jar文件。由sbt update时填充
  • target – 生成物的目标路径(如自动生成的thrift代码,类文件,jar包)

添加一些代码

我们将为简单的tweet消息创建一个简单的JSON解析器。将以下代码加在这个文件中
src/main/scala/com/twitter/sample/SimpleParser.scala

package com.twitter.sample

case class SimpleParsed(id: Long, text: String)

class SimpleParser {

  val tweetRegex = "\"id\":(.*),\"text\":\"(.*)\"".r

  def parse(str: String) = {
    tweetRegex.findFirstMatchIn(str) match {
      case Some(m) => {
        val id = str.substring(m.start(1), m.end(1)).toInt
        val text = str.substring(m.start(2), m.end(2))
        Some(SimpleParsed(id, text))
      }
      case _ => None
    }
  }
}

这段代码丑陋并有bug,但应该能够编译通过。

在控制台中的测试

SBT既可以用作命令行脚本,也可以作为构建控制台。我们将主要利用它作为构建控制台,不过大多数命令可以作为参数传递给SBT独立运行,如

sbt test

需要注意如果一个命令需要参数,你需要使用引号包括住整个参数路径,例如

sbt 'test-only com.twitter.sample.SampleSpec'

这种方式很奇怪。

不管怎样,要开始我们的代码工作了,启动SBT吧

[local ~/projects/sbt-sample]$ sbt
[info] Building project sample 1.0-SNAPSHOT against Scala 2.8.1
[info]    using sbt.DefaultProject with sbt 0.7.4 and Scala 2.7.7
> 

SBT允许你启动一个Scala REPL并加载所有项目依赖。它会在启动控制台前编译项目的源代码,从而为我们提供一个快速测试解析器的工作台。

> console
[info] 
[info] == compile ==
[info]   Source analysis: 0 new/modified, 0 indirectly invalidated, 0 removed.
[info] Compiling main sources...
[info] Nothing to compile.
[info]   Post-analysis: 3 classes.
[info] == compile ==
[info] 
[info] == copy-test-resources ==
[info] == copy-test-resources ==
[info] 
[info] == test-compile ==
[info]   Source analysis: 0 new/modified, 0 indirectly invalidated, 0 removed.
[info] Compiling test sources...
[info] Nothing to compile.
[info]   Post-analysis: 0 classes.
[info] == test-compile ==
[info] 
[info] == copy-resources ==
[info] == copy-resources ==
[info] 
[info] == console ==
[info] Starting scala interpreter...
[info] 
Welcome to Scala version 2.8.1.final (Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM, Java 1.6.0_22).
Type in expressions to have them evaluated.
Type :help for more information.

scala> 

我们代码编译通过了,并提供了典型的Scala提示符。我们将创建一个新的解析器,一个tweet以确保其“能工作”

scala> import com.twitter.sample._            
import com.twitter.sample._

scala> val tweet = """{"id":1,"text":"foo"}"""
tweet: java.lang.String = {"id":1,"text":"foo"}

scala> val parser = new SimpleParser          
parser: com.twitter.sample.SimpleParser = com.twitter.sample.SimpleParser@71060c3e

scala> parser.parse(tweet)                    
res0: Option[com.twitter.sample.SimpleParsed] = Some(SimpleParsed(1,"foo"}))

scala> 

添加依赖

我们简单的解析器对这个非常小的输入集工作正常,但我们需要添加更多的测试并让它出错。第一步是在我们的项目中添加specs测试库和一个真正的JSON解析器。要做到这一点,我们必须超越默认的SBT项目布局来创建一个项目。

SBT认为project/build目录中的Scala文件是项目定义。添加以下内容到这个文件中project/build/SampleProject.scala

import sbt._

class SampleProject(info: ProjectInfo) extends DefaultProject(info) {
  val jackson = "org.codehaus.jackson" % "jackson-core-asl" % "1.6.1"
  val specs = "org.scala-tools.testing" % "specs_2.8.0" % "1.6.5" % "test"
}

一个项目定义是一个SBT类。在上面例子中,我们扩展了SBT的DefaultProject。

这里是通过val声明依赖。SBT使用反射来扫描项目中的所有val依赖,并在构建时建立依赖关系树。这里使用的语法可能是新的,但本质和Maven依赖是相同的

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.codehaus.jackson</groupId>
  <artifactId>jackson-core-asl</artifactId>
  <version>1.6.1</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
  <groupId>org.scala-tools.testing</groupId>
  <artifactId>specs_2.8.0</artifactId>
  <version>1.6.5</version>
  <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

现在可以下载我们的项目依赖了。在命令行中(而不是sbt console中)运行sbt update

[local ~/projects/sbt-sample]$ sbt update
[info] Building project sample 1.0-SNAPSHOT against Scala 2.8.1
[info]    using SampleProject with sbt 0.7.4 and Scala 2.7.7
[info] 
[info] == update ==
[info] :: retrieving :: com.twitter#sample_2.8.1 [sync]
[info] 	confs: [compile, runtime, test, provided, system, optional, sources, javadoc]
[info] 	1 artifacts copied, 0 already retrieved (2785kB/71ms)
[info] == update ==
[success] Successful.
[info] 
[info] Total time: 1 s, completed Nov 24, 2010 8:47:26 AM
[info] 
[info] Total session time: 2 s, completed Nov 24, 2010 8:47:26 AM
[success] Build completed successfully.

你会看到sbt检索到specs库。现在还增加了一个lib_managed目录,并且在lib_managed/scala_2.8.1/test目录中包含 specs_2.8.0-1.6.5.jar

添加测试

现在有了测试库,可以把下面的测试代码写入src/test/scala/com/twitter/sample/SimpleParserSpec.scala文件

package com.twitter.sample

import org.specs._

object SimpleParserSpec extends Specification {
  "SimpleParser" should {
    val parser = new SimpleParser()
    "work with basic tweet" in {
      val tweet = """{"id":1,"text":"foo"}"""
      parser.parse(tweet) match {
        case Some(parsed) => {
          parsed.text must be_==("foo")
          parsed.id must be_==(1)
        }
        case _ => fail("didn't parse tweet")
      }
    }
  }
}

在SBT控制台中运行test

> test
[info] 
[info] == compile ==
[info]   Source analysis: 0 new/modified, 0 indirectly invalidated, 0 removed.
[info] Compiling main sources...
[info] Nothing to compile.
[info]   Post-analysis: 3 classes.
[info] == compile ==
[info] 
[info] == test-compile ==
[info]   Source analysis: 0 new/modified, 0 indirectly invalidated, 0 removed.
[info] Compiling test sources...
[info] Nothing to compile.
[info]   Post-analysis: 10 classes.
[info] == test-compile ==
[info] 
[info] == copy-test-resources ==
[info] == copy-test-resources ==
[info] 
[info] == copy-resources ==
[info] == copy-resources ==
[info] 
[info] == test-start ==
[info] == test-start ==
[info] 
[info] == com.twitter.sample.SimpleParserSpec ==
[info] SimpleParserSpec
[info] SimpleParser should
[info]   + work with basic tweet
[info] == com.twitter.sample.SimpleParserSpec ==
[info] 
[info] == test-complete ==
[info] == test-complete ==
[info] 
[info] == test-finish ==
[info] Passed: : Total 1, Failed 0, Errors 0, Passed 1, Skipped 0
[info]  
[info] All tests PASSED.
[info] == test-finish ==
[info] 
[info] == test-cleanup ==
[info] == test-cleanup ==
[info] 
[info] == test ==
[info] == test ==
[success] Successful.
[info] 
[info] Total time: 0 s, completed Nov 24, 2010 8:54:45 AM
> 

我们的测试通过了!现在,我们可以增加更多。运行触发动作是SBT提供的优秀特性之一。在动作开始添加一个波浪线会启动一个循环,在源文件发生变化时重新运行动作。让我们运行 ~test 并看看会发生什么吧。

[info] == test ==
[success] Successful.
[info] 
[info] Total time: 0 s, completed Nov 24, 2010 8:55:50 AM
1\. Waiting for source changes... (press enter to interrupt)

现在,让我们添加下面的测试案例

    "reject a non-JSON tweet" in {
      val tweet = """"id":1,"text":"foo""""
      parser.parse(tweet) match {
        case Some(parsed) => fail("didn't reject a non-JSON tweet")
        case e => e must be_==(None)
      }
    }

    "ignore nested content" in {
      val tweet = """{"id":1,"text":"foo","nested":{"id":2}}"""
      parser.parse(tweet) match {
        case Some(parsed) => {
          parsed.text must be_==("foo")
          parsed.id must be_==(1)
        }
        case _ => fail("didn't parse tweet")
      }
    }

    "fail on partial content" in {
      val tweet = """{"id":1}"""
      parser.parse(tweet) match {
        case Some(parsed) => fail("didn't reject a partial tweet")
        case e => e must be_==(None)
      }
    }

在我们保存文件后,SBT会检测到变化,运行测试,并通知我们的解析器有问题

[info] == com.twitter.sample.SimpleParserSpec ==
[info] SimpleParserSpec
[info] SimpleParser should
[info]   + work with basic tweet
[info]   x reject a non-JSON tweet
[info]     didn't reject a non-JSON tweet (Specification.scala:43)
[info]   x ignore nested content
[info]     'foo","nested":{"id' is not equal to 'foo' (SimpleParserSpec.scala:31)
[info]   + fail on partial content

因此,让我们返工实现真正的JSON解析器

package com.twitter.sample

import org.codehaus.jackson._
import org.codehaus.jackson.JsonToken._

case class SimpleParsed(id: Long, text: String)

class SimpleParser {

  val parserFactory = new JsonFactory()

  def parse(str: String) = {
    val parser = parserFactory.createJsonParser(str)
    if (parser.nextToken() == START_OBJECT) {
      var token = parser.nextToken()
      var textOpt:Option[String] = None
      var idOpt:Option[Long] = None
      while(token != null) {
        if (token == FIELD_NAME) {
          parser.getCurrentName() match {
            case "text" => {
              parser.nextToken()
              textOpt = Some(parser.getText())
            }
            case "id" => {
              parser.nextToken()
              idOpt = Some(parser.getLongValue())
            }
            case _ => // noop
          }
        }
        token = parser.nextToken()
      }
      if (textOpt.isDefined && idOpt.isDefined) {
        Some(SimpleParsed(idOpt.get, textOpt.get))
      } else {
        None
      }
    } else {
      None
    }
  }
}

这是一个简单的Jackson解析器。当我们保存,SBT会重新编译代码和运行测试。代码变得越来越好了!

info] SimpleParser should
[info]   + work with basic tweet
[info]   + reject a non-JSON tweet
[info]   x ignore nested content
[info]     '2' is not equal to '1' (SimpleParserSpec.scala:32)
[info]   + fail on partial content
[info] == com.twitter.sample.SimpleParserSpec ==

哦。我们需要检查嵌套对象。让我们在token读取循环处添加一些丑陋的守卫。

  def parse(str: String) = {
    val parser = parserFactory.createJsonParser(str)
    var nested = 0
    if (parser.nextToken() == START_OBJECT) {
      var token = parser.nextToken()
      var textOpt:Option[String] = None
      var idOpt:Option[Long] = None
      while(token != null) {
        if (token == FIELD_NAME && nested == 0) {
          parser.getCurrentName() match {
            case "text" => {
              parser.nextToken()
              textOpt = Some(parser.getText())
            }
            case "id" => {
              parser.nextToken()
              idOpt = Some(parser.getLongValue())
            }
            case _ => // noop
          }
        } else if (token == START_OBJECT) {
          nested += 1
        } else if (token == END_OBJECT) {
          nested -= 1
        }
        token = parser.nextToken()
      }
      if (textOpt.isDefined && idOpt.isDefined) {
        Some(SimpleParsed(idOpt.get, textOpt.get))
      } else {
        None
      }
    } else {
      None
    }
  }

…测试通过了!

打包和发布

现在我们已经可以运行package命令来生成一个jar文件。不过我们可能要与其他组分享我们的jar包。要做到这一点,我们将在StandardProject基础上构建,这给了我们一个良好的开端。

第一步是引入StandardProject为SBT插件。插件是一种为你的构建引进依赖的方式,注意不是为你的项目引入。这些依赖关系定义在project/plugins/Plugins.scala文件中。添加以下代码到Plugins.scala文件中。

import sbt._

class Plugins(info: ProjectInfo) extends PluginDefinition(info) {
  val twitterMaven = "twitter.com" at "http://maven.twttr.com/"
  val defaultProject = "com.twitter" % "standard-project" % "0.7.14"
}

注意我们指定了一个Maven仓库和一个依赖。这是因为这个标准项目库是由twitter托管的,不在SBT默认检查的仓库中。

我们也将更新项目定义来扩展StandardProject,包括SVN发布特质,和我们希望发布的仓库定义。修改SampleProject.scala

import sbt._
import com.twitter.sbt._

class SampleProject(info: ProjectInfo) extends StandardProject(info) with SubversionPublisher {
  val jackson = "org.codehaus.jackson" % "jackson-core-asl" % "1.6.1"
  val specs = "org.scala-tools.testing" % "specs_2.8.0" % "1.6.5" % "test"

  override def subversionRepository = Some("http://svn.local.twitter.com/maven/")
}

现在如果我们运行发布操作,将看到以下输出

[info] == deliver ==
IvySvn Build-Version: null
IvySvn Build-DateTime: null
[info] :: delivering :: com.twitter#sample;1.0-SNAPSHOT :: 1.0-SNAPSHOT :: release :: Wed Nov 24 10:26:45 PST 2010
[info] 	delivering ivy file to /Users/mmcbride/projects/sbt-sample/target/ivy-1.0-SNAPSHOT.xml
[info] == deliver ==
[info] 
[info] == make-pom ==
[info] Wrote /Users/mmcbride/projects/sbt-sample/target/sample-1.0-SNAPSHOT.pom
[info] == make-pom ==
[info] 
[info] == publish ==
[info] :: publishing :: com.twitter#sample
[info] Scheduling publish to http://svn.local.twitter.com/maven/com/twitter/sample/1.0-SNAPSHOT/sample-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
[info] 	published sample to com/twitter/sample/1.0-SNAPSHOT/sample-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
[info] Scheduling publish to http://svn.local.twitter.com/maven/com/twitter/sample/1.0-SNAPSHOT/sample-1.0-SNAPSHOT.pom
[info] 	published sample to com/twitter/sample/1.0-SNAPSHOT/sample-1.0-SNAPSHOT.pom
[info] Scheduling publish to http://svn.local.twitter.com/maven/com/twitter/sample/1.0-SNAPSHOT/ivy-1.0-SNAPSHOT.xml
[info] 	published ivy to com/twitter/sample/1.0-SNAPSHOT/ivy-1.0-SNAPSHOT.xml
[info] Binary diff deleting com/twitter/sample/1.0-SNAPSHOT
[info] Commit finished r977 by 'mmcbride' at Wed Nov 24 10:26:47 PST 2010
[info] Copying from com/twitter/sample/.upload to com/twitter/sample/1.0-SNAPSHOT
[info] Binary diff finished : r978 by 'mmcbride' at Wed Nov 24 10:26:47 PST 2010
[info] == publish ==
[success] Successful.
[info] 
[info] Total time: 4 s, completed Nov 24, 2010 10:26:47 AM

这样(一段时间后),就可以在 binaries.local.twitter.com 上看到我们发布的jar包。

添加任务

任务就是Scala函数。添加一个任务最简单的方法是,在你的项目定义中引入一个val定义的任务方法,如

lazy val print = task {log.info("a test action"); None}

你也可以这样加上依赖和描述

lazy val print = task {log.info("a test action"); None}.dependsOn(compile) describedAs("prints a line after compile")

刷新项目,并执行print操作,我们将看到以下输出

> print
[info] 
[info] == print ==
[info] a test action
[info] == print ==
[success] Successful.
[info] 
[info] Total time: 0 s, completed Nov 24, 2010 11:05:12 AM
> 

所以它起作用了。如果你只是在一个项目定义一个任务的话,这工作得很好。然而如果你定义的是一个插件的话,它就很不灵活了。我可能要

lazy val print = printAction
def printAction = printTask.dependsOn(compile) describedAs("prints a line after compile")
def printTask = task {log.info("a test action"); None}

这可以让消费者覆盖任务本身,依赖和/或任务的描述,或动作本身。大多数SBT内建的动作都遵循这种模式。作为一个例子,我们可以通过修改内置打包任务来打印当前时间戳

lazy val printTimestamp = task { log.info("current time is " + System.currentTimeMillis); None}
override def packageAction = super.packageAction.dependsOn(printTimestamp)

有很多例子介绍了怎样调整SBT默认的StandardProject,和如何添加自定义任务。

快速参考

常用命令

  • actions – 显示这个项目中可用的动作
  • update – 下载依赖
  • compile – 编译源文件
  • test – 运行测试
  • package – 创建一个可发布的jar文件
  • publish-local – 在本地ivy缓存中安装构建好的jar包
  • publish – 将你的jar推到一个远程库中(如果配置了的话)

更多命令

  • test-failed – 运行所有失败的规格测试
  • test-quick – 运行任何失败的和/或依赖更新的规格
  • clean-cache – 删除SBT缓存各种的东西。就像sbt的clean命令
  • clean-lib – 删除lib_managed下的一切

项目布局

待续

Built at @twitter by @stevej@marius, and @lahosken with much help from @evanm@sprsquish@kevino@zuercher@timtrueman@wickman, and@mccv; Russian translation by appigram; Chinese simple translation by jasonqu; Korean translation by enshahar;

Licensed under the Apache License v2.0.

相关文章