Kubernetes搭建高可用集群

x33g5p2x  于2021-11-09 转载在 Kubernetes  
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前言

之前我们搭建的集群,只有一个master节点,当master节点宕机的时候,通过node将无法继续访问,而master主要是管理作用,所以整个集群将无法提供服务

高可用集群

下面我们就需要搭建一个多master节点的高可用集群,不会存在单点故障问题

但是在node 和 master节点之间,需要存在一个 LoadBalancer组件,作用如下:

  • 负载
  • 检查master节点的状态

对外有一个统一的VIP:虚拟ip来对外进行访问

高可用集群技术细节
高可用集群技术细节如下所示:

  • keepalived:配置虚拟ip,检查节点的状态
  • haproxy:负载均衡服务【类似于nginx】
  • apiserver:
  • controller:
  • manager:
  • scheduler:

高可用集群步骤

我们采用2个master节点,一个node节点来搭建高可用集群,下面给出了每个节点需要做的事情

初始化操作

我们需要在这三个节点上进行操作

# 关闭防火墙
systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld

# 关闭selinux
# 永久关闭
sed -i 's/enforcing/disabled/' /etc/selinux/config  
# 临时关闭
setenforce 0  

# 关闭swap
# 临时
swapoff -a 
# 永久关闭
sed -ri 's/.*swap.*/#&/' /etc/fstab

# 根据规划设置主机名【master1节点上操作】
hostnamectl set-hostname master1
# 根据规划设置主机名【master2节点上操作】
hostnamectl set-hostname master1
# 根据规划设置主机名【node1节点操作】
hostnamectl set-hostname node1

# r添加hosts
cat >> /etc/hosts << EOF 192.168.44.158 k8smaster 192.168.44.155 master01.k8s.io master1 192.168.44.156 master02.k8s.io master2 192.168.44.157 node01.k8s.io node1 EOF

# 将桥接的IPv4流量传递到iptables的链【3个节点上都执行】
cat > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf << EOF net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1 net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1 EOF

# 生效
sysctl --system  

# 时间同步
yum install ntpdate -y
ntpdate time.windows.com

部署keepAlived

下面我们需要在所有的master节点【master1和master2】上部署keepAlive

安装相关包
# 安装相关工具
yum install -y conntrack-tools libseccomp libtool-ltdl
# 安装keepalived
yum install -y keepalived
配置master节点

添加master1的配置

cat > /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf <<EOF ! Configuration File for keepalived global_defs { router_id k8s } vrrp_script check_haproxy { script "killall -0 haproxy" interval 3 weight -2 fall 10 rise 2 } vrrp_instance VI_1 { state MASTER interface ens33 virtual_router_id 51 priority 250 advert_int 1 authentication { auth_type PASS auth_pass ceb1b3ec013d66163d6ab } virtual_ipaddress { 192.168.44.158 } track_script { check_haproxy } } EOF

添加master2的配置

cat > /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf <<EOF ! Configuration File for keepalived global_defs { router_id k8s } vrrp_script check_haproxy { script "killall -0 haproxy" interval 3 weight -2 fall 10 rise 2 } vrrp_instance VI_1 { state BACKUP interface ens33 virtual_router_id 51 priority 200 advert_int 1 authentication { auth_type PASS auth_pass ceb1b3ec013d66163d6ab } virtual_ipaddress { 192.168.44.158 } track_script { check_haproxy } } EOF
启动和检查

在两台master节点都执行

# 启动keepalived
systemctl start keepalived.service
# 设置开机启动
systemctl enable keepalived.service
# 查看启动状态
systemctl status keepalived.service

启动后查看master的网卡信息

ip a s ens33

部署haproxy

haproxy主要做负载的作用,将我们的请求分担到不同的node节点上

安装

在两个master节点安装 haproxy

# 安装haproxy
yum install -y haproxy
# 启动 haproxy
systemctl start haproxy
# 开启自启
systemctl enable haproxy

启动后,我们查看对应的端口是否包含 16443

netstat -tunlp | grep haproxy

配置

两台master节点的配置均相同,配置中声明了后端代理的两个master节点服务器,指定了haproxy运行的端口为16443等,因此16443端口为集群的入口

cat > /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg << EOF #--------------------------------------------------------------------- # Global settings #--------------------------------------------------------------------- global # to have these messages end up in /var/log/haproxy.log you will # need to: # 1) configure syslog to accept network log events. This is done # by adding the '-r' option to the SYSLOGD_OPTIONS in # /etc/sysconfig/syslog # 2) configure local2 events to go to the /var/log/haproxy.log # file. A line like the following can be added to # /etc/sysconfig/syslog # # local2.* /var/log/haproxy.log # log 127.0.0.1 local2 chroot /var/lib/haproxy pidfile /var/run/haproxy.pid maxconn 4000 user haproxy group haproxy daemon # turn on stats unix socket stats socket /var/lib/haproxy/stats #--------------------------------------------------------------------- # common defaults that all the 'listen' and 'backend' sections will # use if not designated in their block #--------------------------------------------------------------------- defaults mode http log global option httplog option dontlognull option http-server-close option forwardfor except 127.0.0.0/8 option redispatch retries 3 timeout http-request 10s timeout queue 1m timeout connect 10s timeout client 1m timeout server 1m timeout http-keep-alive 10s timeout check 10s maxconn 3000 #--------------------------------------------------------------------- # kubernetes apiserver frontend which proxys to the backends #--------------------------------------------------------------------- frontend kubernetes-apiserver mode tcp bind *:16443 option tcplog default_backend kubernetes-apiserver #--------------------------------------------------------------------- # round robin balancing between the various backends #--------------------------------------------------------------------- backend kubernetes-apiserver mode tcp balance roundrobin server master01.k8s.io 192.168.44.155:6443 check server master02.k8s.io 192.168.44.156:6443 check #--------------------------------------------------------------------- # collection haproxy statistics message #--------------------------------------------------------------------- listen stats bind *:1080 stats auth admin:awesomePassword stats refresh 5s stats realm HAProxy\ Statistics stats uri /admin?stats EOF

安装Docker、Kubeadm、kubectl

所有节点安装Docker/kubeadm/kubelet ,Kubernetes默认CRI(容器运行时)为Docker,因此先安装Docker
安装Docker

添加kubernetes软件源

然后我们还需要配置一下yum的k8s软件源

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo << EOF [kubernetes] name=Kubernetes baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64 enabled=1 gpgcheck=0 repo_gpgcheck=0 gpgkey=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg EOF
开始安装kubeadm,kubelet和kubectl

由于版本更新频繁,这里指定版本号部署:

# 安装kubelet、kubeadm、kubectl,同时指定版本
yum install -y kubelet-1.18.0 kubeadm-1.18.0 kubectl-1.18.0
# 设置开机启动
systemctl enable kubelet
部署Kubernetes Master【master节点】

创建kubeadm配置文件
在具有vip的master上进行初始化操作,这里为master1

# 创建文件夹
mkdir /usr/local/kubernetes/manifests -p
# 到manifests目录
cd /usr/local/kubernetes/manifests/
# 新建yaml文件
vi kubeadm-config.yaml

yaml内容如下所示:

apiServer:
  certSANs:
    - master1
    - master2
    - master.k8s.io
    - 192.168.44.158
    - 192.168.44.155
    - 192.168.44.156
    - 127.0.0.1
  extraArgs:
    authorization-mode: Node,RBAC
  timeoutForControlPlane: 4m0s
apiVersion: kubeadm.k8s.io/v1beta1
certificatesDir: /etc/kubernetes/pki
clusterName: kubernetes
controlPlaneEndpoint: "master.k8s.io:16443"
controllerManager: {}
dns: 
  type: CoreDNS
etcd:
  local:    
    dataDir: /var/lib/etcd
imageRepository: registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers
kind: ClusterConfiguration
kubernetesVersion: v1.16.3
networking: 
  dnsDomain: cluster.local  
  podSubnet: 10.244.0.0/16
  serviceSubnet: 10.1.0.0/16
scheduler: {}

然后我们在 master1 节点执行

kubeadm init --config kubeadm-config.yaml

执行完成后,就会在拉取我们的进行了【需要等待…】

按照提示配置环境变量,使用kubectl工具

# 执行下方命令
mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config
# 查看节点
kubectl get nodes
# 查看pod
kubectl get pods -n kube-system

按照提示保存以下内容,一会要使用:

kubeadm join master.k8s.io:16443 --token jv5z7n.3y1zi95p952y9p65 \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:403bca185c2f3a4791685013499e7ce58f9848e2213e27194b75a2e3293d8812 \
    --control-plane
--control-plane : 只有在添加master节点的时候才有

查看集群状态

# 查看集群状态
kubectl get cs
# 查看pod
kubectl get pods -n kube-system

安装集群网络

从官方地址获取到flannel的yaml,在master1上执行

# 创建文件夹
mkdir flannel
cd flannel
# 下载yaml文件
wget -c https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml

安装flannel网络

kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yml

检查

kubectl get pods -n kube-system

master2节点加入集群

复制密钥及相关文件

从master1复制密钥及相关文件到master2

# ssh root@192.168.44.156 mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd

# scp /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf root@192.168.44.156:/etc/kubernetes
   
# scp /etc/kubernetes/pki/{ca.*,sa.*,front-proxy-ca.*} root@192.168.44.156:/etc/kubernetes/pki
   
# scp /etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/ca.* root@192.168.44.156:/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd

master2加入集群

执行在master1上init后输出的join命令,需要带上参数–control-plane表示把master控制节点加入集群

kubeadm join master.k8s.io:16443 --token ckf7bs.30576l0okocepg8b     --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:19afac8b11182f61073e254fb57b9f19ab4d798b70501036fc69ebef46094aba --control-plane

检查状态

kubectl get node

kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
加入Kubernetes Node

在node1上执行

向集群添加新节点,执行在kubeadm init输出的kubeadm join命令:

kubeadm join master.k8s.io:16443 --token ckf7bs.30576l0okocepg8b     --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:19afac8b11182f61073e254fb57b9f19ab4d798b70501036fc69ebef46094aba
集群网络重新安装,因为添加了新的node节点

检查状态

kubectl get node
kubectl get pods --all-namespaces

测试kubernetes集群

在Kubernetes集群中创建一个pod,验证是否正常运行:

# 创建nginx deployment
kubectl create deployment nginx --image=nginx
# 暴露端口
kubectl expose deployment nginx --port=80 --type=NodePort
# 查看状态
kubectl get pod,svc
然后我们通过任何一个节点,都能够访问我们的nginx页面

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