Spark学习之Spark SQL

x33g5p2x  于2020-09-30 发布在 SparkSQL  
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什么是SparkSQL

Spark SQL是Spark用来处理结构化数据的一个模块,它提供了一个编程抽象叫做DataFrame并且作为分布式SQL查询引擎的作用。我们已经学习了Hive,它是将Hive SQL转换成MapReduce然后提交到集群上执行,大大简化了编写MapReduce的程序的复杂性,由于MapReduce这种计算模型执行效率比较慢。所有Spark SQL的应运而生,它是将Spark SQL转换成RDD,然后提交到集群执行,执行效率非常快!

SparkSQL优点
易整合
统一的数据访问方式
兼容Hive
标准的数据连接


SparkSQL可以看做是一个转换层,向下对接各种不同的结构化数据源,向上提供不同的数据访问方式。

SparkSQL的数据抽象

命令行使用SqarkSQL

原始数据预览

  {"name":"Michael", "salary":3000}
  {"name":"Andy", "salary":4500}
  {"name":"Justin", "salary":3500}
  {"name":"Berta", "salary":4000}

具体操作

  scala> val employees = spark.read.json("file:///home/yetao_yang/spark/spark-2.4.3/examples/src/main/resources/employees.json")
  employees: org.apache.spark.sql.DataFrame = [name: string, salary: bigint]

  scala> employees.show
  +-------+------+
  |   name|salary|
  +-------+------+
  |Michael|  3000|
  |   Andy|  4500|
  | Justin|  3500|
  |  Berta|  4000|
  +-------+------+
  scala> employees.map(_.getAs[String]("name")).show
  +-------+
  |  value|
  +-------+
  |Michael|
  |   Andy|
  | Justin|
  |  Berta|
  +-------+
  scala> employees.select("name").show
  +-------+
  |   name|
  +-------+
  |Michael|
  |   Andy|
  | Justin|
  |  Berta|
  +-------+

命令行sql操作

  scala> employees.createOrReplaceTempView("abc")

  scala> spark.sql("select from abc").show
  +-------+------+
  |   name|salary|
  +-------+------+
  |Michael|  3000|
  |   Andy|  4500|
  | Justin|  3500|
  |  Berta|  4000|
  +-------+------+
  scala> spark.sql("select from abc where salary >= 4000 ").show
  +-----+------+
  | name|salary|
  +-----+------+
  | Andy|  4500|
  |Berta|  4000|
  +-----+------+

IDEA里面使用SparkSQL

在pom文件里面添加sparkSql的依赖

  <dependency>
  <groupId>org.apache.spark</groupId>
  <artifactId>spark-sql_2.11</artifactId>
  <version>2.4.3</version>
  <!--<scope>provided</scope>-->
  </dependency>

具体代码为

  object SparkSqlHello extends App{
  System.setProperty("HADOOP_USER_NAME", "yetao_yang")
  val sparkConf = new SparkConf().setAppName("sparkSql").setMaster("local[*]")
  val spark = SparkSession
.builder()
.config(sparkConf)
.getOrCreate()
  val sc = spark.sparkContext

  val employee = spark.read.json("file:///D:/work_space/idea/spark/spark_sql/helloWord/src/main/resources/employee.json")
  for (elem <- employee.collect) {
println(elem.getAs[String]("name") + " == " + elem.getAs[Int]("salary"))
  }
  println("=========================================")
  employee.createOrReplaceTempView("employee")
  val result = spark.sql("select from employee where salary >= 4000 ").collect
  for (elem <- result) {
println(elem.getAs[String]("name") + " == " + elem.getAs[Int]("salary"))
  }
  spark.stop()
  sc.stop()
  /**
  Michael == 3000
  Andy == 4500
  Justin == 3500
  Berta == 4000
  =========================================
  Andy == 4500
  Berta == 4000
  **/
  }

RDD与DataFrame 互转

RDD -> DataFrame (确定Schema)
直接手动确定

peopleRDD.map{x =>
  val para = x.split(",")
  (para(0), para(1).trim.toInt)
  }.toDF("name","age")

通过反射确定 (利用case class 的功能)

case class People(name:String, age:Int)
peopleRdd.map{ x =>
  val para = x.split(",")
  People(para(0),para(1).trim.toInt)
}.toDF

通过编程方式来确定
准备Scheam
val schema = StructType( StructField("name",StringType):: StructField("age",IntegerType)::Nil )
准备Data 【需要Row类型】

  val data = peopleRdd.map{ x =>
val para = x.split(",")
Row(para(0),para(1).trim.toInt)
  }

生成DataFrame
val dataFrame = spark.createDataFrame(data, schema)
DataFrame -> RDD
dataFrame.rdd 即可, 返回的是 RDD[Row]

RDD与DataSet 互转

`RDD -> DataSet

  case class People(name:String, age:Int)
  peopleRDD.map{x =>
	 val para = x.split(",")
	 People(para(0), para(1).trim.toInt)
	}.toDS

```
`DataSet -> RDD

````scala
  dataSet.rdd //返回的是 RDD[People]

```

### DataFrame与DataSet 互转

`DataSet ->  DataFrame`
  `dataSet.toDF`  即可,直接复用case class的名称
`DataFrame -> DataSet`  (Scheam需要借助case class) 【DF的列名要和 case class的列名一致。】

```scala
  case class People(name:String, age:Int)
  dataFrame.as[People]

```

### SparkSQL执行模式

DSL模式 【通过调用方法】
  `dataFame.select("name").show`
  `dataFame.filter($"age" > 25).show`
SQL模式
  `spark.sql("select from people")`

### 自定义函数

#### UDF函数

注册函数
  `spark.udf.register("add",(x:String) => "A:" + x)`
使用函数
  `spark.sql("select add(name) from people")`
效果

```
  +-------------+
  |UDF:add(name)|
  +-------------+
  |A:Michael|
  |A:Andy   |
  |A:Justin |
  |A:Berta  |
  +-------------+

```


#### UDAF函数(聚合函数)

弱类型
  代码书写

```scala
/*{"name":"Michael", "salary":3000}
{"name":"Andy", "salary":4501}
{"name":"Justin", "salary":3500}
{"name":"Berta", "salary":4000}
目标: 求平均工资 [工资的总额,工资的个数]
*/

// 自定义UDAF函数需要继承UserDefinedAggregateFunction抽象类
class AverageSal extends UserDefinedAggregateFunction{

  // 输入数据
  override def inputSchema: StructType = StructType(StructField("salary",LongType) :: Nil)

  // 每一个分区中的 共享变量
  override def bufferSchema: StructType = StructType(StructField("sum",LongType) :: StructField("count",IntegerType) :: Nil)

  // 表示UDFA函数的最终输出类型
  override def dataType: DataType = DoubleType

  // 如果有相同的输入是否存在相同的输出,如果有则true
  override def deterministic: Boolean = true

  // 初始化每一个分区中的共享变量
  override def initialize(buffer: MutableAggregationBuffer): Unit = {
// buffer(0) 为bufferSchema函数第一个StructField,为StructField("sum",LongType)
buffer(0) = 0L
// buffer(1) 为bufferSchema函数第二个StructField,为StructField("count",IntegerType)
buffer(1) = 0
  }

  // 每一个分区中的每一条数据聚合的时候需要调用该方法
  override def update(buffer: MutableAggregationBuffer, input: Row): Unit = {
// 获取一行的工资,将工资加入到sum中
buffer(0) = buffer.getLong(0) + input.getLong(0)
// 将工资个数加1
buffer(1) = buffer.getInt(1) + 1
  }

  // 将每一个分区的输出合并,形成最后的数据
  override def merge(buffer1: MutableAggregationBuffer, buffer2: Row): Unit = {
// 合并总的工资
buffer1(0) = buffer1.getLong(0) + buffer2.getLong(0)
// 合并总的工资个数
buffer1(1) = buffer1.getInt(1) + buffer2.getInt(1)
  }

  // 给出计算结果
  override def evaluate(buffer: Row): Any = {
// 取出总的工资 / 总的工资数
buffer.getLong(0).toDouble / buffer.getInt(1)
  }
}

```
  具体调用

```scala
object SparkSqlHello extends App{
//System.setProperty("HADOOP_USER_NAME", "yetao_yang")
val sparkConf = new SparkConf().setAppName("sparkSql").setMaster("local[*]")
val spark = SparkSession
  .builder()
  .config(sparkConf)
  .getOrCreate()
val employee = spark.read.json("file:///D:/work_space/idea/spark/spark_sql/helloWord/src/main/resources/employee.json")
employee.createOrReplaceTempView("employee")
// 注册UDAF函数
spark.udf.register("averageSal",new AverageSal)
val result = spark.sql("select averageSal(salary) from employee").collect
for (elem <- result) {
  println(elem.toString())
}
spark.stop()
/**
[3750.25]
*/
}

```

强类型[DSL]
  继承Aggregator抽象类, 依次配置输入、共享变量、输出的类型,需要用到case class
  代码

```scala
case class EmpLoyee(var name:String,var salary:Long)
case class Aver(var sum:Long,var count:Int)

/**
  EmpLoyee: INPUT
  Aver: Buffer
  Double: OUTPUT
  */
class Average extends Aggregator[EmpLoyee,Aver,Double] {
  // 初始化方法
  override def zero: Aver = Aver(0L,0)

  // 每一个分区中的每一条数据聚合的时候需要调用该方法
  override def reduce(b: Aver, a: EmpLoyee): Aver = {
b.sum = b.sum + a.salary
b.count = b.count + 1
b
  }

  // 将每一个分区的输出合并,形成最后的数据
  override def merge(b1: Aver, b2: Aver): Aver = {
b1.count = b1.count + b2.count
b1.sum = b1.sum + b2.sum
b1
  }

  // 给出计算结果
  override def finish(reduction: Aver): Double = {
reduction.sum.toDouble / reduction.count
  }

  // 对共享的变量进行编码
  override def bufferEncoder: Encoder[Aver] = Encoders.product

  // 将输出进行编码
  override def outputEncoder: Encoder[Double] = Encoders.scalaDouble
}

```
  使用

```scala
object Average extends App {
  val sparkConf = new SparkConf().setAppName("sparkSql").setMaster("local[*]")
  val spark = SparkSession
.builder()
.config(sparkConf)
.getOrCreate()
  import spark.implicits._
  val employee = spark.read.json("file:///D:/work_space/idea/spark/spark_sql/helloWord/src/main/resources/employee.json")
.as[EmpLoyee]
  val aver = new Average().toColumn.name("average")
  employee.select(aver).show()
  spark.stop()
}

```


#### 开窗函数

具体代码

```scala
  case class Score(name: String, clazz: Int, score: Int)

  object OverFunction extends App {

val sparkConf = new SparkConf().setAppName("over").setMaster("local[*]")

val spark = SparkSession.builder().config(sparkConf).getOrCreate()

import spark.implicits._
println("//************** 原始的班级表  ****************//")
val scoreDF = spark.sparkContext.makeRDD(Array( Score("a", 1, 80),
Score("b", 1, 78),
Score("c", 1, 95),
Score("d", 2, 74),
Score("e", 2, 92),
Score("f", 3, 99),
Score("g", 3, 99),
Score("h", 3, 45),
Score("i", 3, 55),
Score("j", 3, 78))).toDF("name","class","score")
scoreDF.createOrReplaceTempView("score")
scoreDF.show()

println("//************** 求每个班最高成绩学生的信息  ***************/")
println("/****** 开窗函数的表  ********/")
spark.sql("select name,class,score, rank() over(partition by class order by score desc) rank from score").show()
/**
  +----+-----+-----+----+
  |name|class|score|rank|
  +----+-----+-----+----+
  |   c|1|   95|   1|
  |   a|1|   80|   2|
  |   b|1|   78|   3|
  |   f|3|   99|   1|
  |   g|3|   99|   1|
  |   j|3|   78|   3|
  |   i|3|   55|   4|
  |   h|3|   45|   5|
  |   e|2|   92|   1|
  |   d|2|   74|   2|
  +----+-----+-----+----+
  */

println("/****** 计算结果的表  *******")
spark.sql("select from " +
  "( select name,class,score,rank() over(partition by class order by score desc) rank from score) " +
  "as t " +
  "where t.rank=1").show()
/**
  +----+-----+-----+----+
  |name|class|score|rank|
  +----+-----+-----+----+
  |   c|1|   95|   1|
  |   f|3|   99|   1|
  |   g|3|   99|   1|
  |   e|2|   92|   1|
  +----+-----+-----+----+
  */
spark.stop()
  }

```
说明

```
  rank()跳跃排序,有两个第二名时后边跟着的是第四名
dense_rank() 连续排序,有两个第二名时仍然跟着第三名
over()开窗函数:
  在使用聚合函数后,会将多行变成一行,而开窗函数是将一行变成多行;
  并且在使用聚合函数后,如果要显示其他的列必须将列加入到group by中,
  而使用开窗函数后,可以不使用group by,直接将所有信息显示出来。
   开窗函数适用于在每一行的最后一列添加聚合函数的结果。
常用开窗函数:
  1.为每条数据显示聚合信息.(聚合函数() over())
  2.为每条数据提供分组的聚合函数结果(聚合函数() over(partition by 字段) as 别名)
--按照字段分组,分组后进行计算
  3.与排名函数一起使用(row number() over(order by 字段) as 别名)
常用分析函数:(最常用的应该是1.2.3 的排序)
  1、row_number() over(partition by ... order by ...)
  2、rank() over(partition by ... order by ...)
  3、dense_rank() over(partition by ... order by ...)
  4、count() over(partition by ... order by ...)
  5、max() over(partition by ... order by ...)
  6、min() over(partition by ... order by ...)
  7、sum() over(partition by ... order by ...)
  8、avg() over(partition by ... order by ...)
  9、first_value() over(partition by ... order by ...)
  10、last_value() over(partition by ... order by ...)
  11、lag() over(partition by ... order by ...)
  12、lead() over(partition by ... order by ...)
lag 和lead 可以 获取结果集中,按一定排序所排列的当前行的上下相邻若干offset 的某个行的某个列(不用结果集的自关联);
lag ,lead 分别是向前,向后;
lag 和lead 有三个参数,第一个参数是列名,第二个参数是偏移的offset,第三个参数是 超出记录窗口时的默认值

```

### 集成外部hive
> spark整合hive,是通过获取hive的`hive-site.xml`文件里面的hdfs地址(对应hive配置的路径),以及元数据的地址和mysql的地址密码信息,所以spark与hive整合不需要启动hive,只需要告诉spark,hive的元数据地址和数据地址即可


把hive中的`hive-site.xml`配置文件分别拷贝到`spark/conf`目录下
把mysql链接的jar包`mysql-connector-java-5.1.27-bin.jar`拷贝到jars目录下
通过命令行调用
  `./bin/spark-shell --master spark://bigdata01:7077

````sh
scala> spark.sql("select from emp").show
+-----+-----+----+---+--------+----+----+------+
|empno|ename| job|mgr|hiredate| sal|comm|deptno|
+-----+-----+----+---+--------+----+----+------+
|   10|  yyt|上班| 20|20180903|20.5|10.0| 8|
|   39| cxsm|运维| 21|20190403|19.5| 3.8| 4|
+-----+-----+----+---+--------+----+----+------+

```
使用IDEA进行调用
  代码

```scala
object SparkSql2Hive extends App{
  System.setProperty("HADOOP_USER_NAME", "yetao_yang")
  val sparkConf = new SparkConf().setAppName("spark2hive")//.setMaster("spark://bigdata01:7077")
  val spark = SparkSession
.builder()
.config(sparkConf).enableHiveSupport()
.getOrCreate()
  spark.sql("select from emp").show
  spark.stop
}

```
  将该类进行打包,运行spark 提交命令
`./bin/spark-submit --class com.yyt.sparkSQL.SparkSql2Hive --master yarn --deploy-mode cluster ../jar/helloWord-1.0-SNAPSHOT-jar-with-dependencies.jar`
  控制台打印如下

```sh
19/06/20 14:05:38 INFO yarn.Client:
	 client token: N/A
	 diagnostics: N/A
	 ApplicationMaster host: bigdata03
	 ApplicationMaster RPC port: 39386
	 queue: default
	 start time: 1561010715354
	 final status: SUCCEEDED
	 tracking URL: http://bigdata01:8088/proxy/application_1560391631266_0016/
	 user: yetao_yang

```
  去Yarn服务器上查看日志如下

```sh
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO spark.MapOutputTrackerMasterEndpoint: MapOutputTrackerMasterEndpoint stopped!
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO memory.MemoryStore: MemoryStore cleared
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO storage.BlockManager: BlockManager stopped
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO storage.BlockManagerMaster: BlockManagerMaster stopped
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO scheduler.OutputCommitCoordinator$OutputCommitCoordinatorEndpoint: OutputCommitCoordinator stopped!
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO spark.SparkContext: Successfully stopped SparkContext
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO yarn.ApplicationMaster: Final app status: SUCCEEDED, exitCode: 0
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO yarn.ApplicationMaster: Unregistering ApplicationMaster with SUCCEEDED
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO impl.AMRMClientImpl: Waiting for application to be successfully unregistered.
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO impl.AMRMClientImpl: Waiting for application to be successfully unregistered.
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO yarn.ApplicationMaster: Deleting staging directory hdfs://mycluster/user/yetao_yang/.sparkStaging/application_1560391631266_0016
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO util.ShutdownHookManager: Shutdown hook called
19/06/20 14:05:37 INFO util.ShutdownHookManager: Deleting directory /home/yetao_yang/hadoop/data/hadoop/tmp/nm-local-dir/usercache/yetao_yang/appcache/application_1560391631266_0016/spark-cf73e992-fcc3-4614-84a5-8bfff1218121
Log Type: stdout
Log Upload Time: 星期四 六月 20 14:05:39 +0800 2019
Log Length: 299
+-----+-----+----+---+--------+----+----+------+
|empno|ename| job|mgr|hiredate| sal|comm|deptno|
+-----+-----+----+---+--------+----+----+------+
|   10|  yyt|上班| 20|20180903|20.5|10.0| 8|
|   39| cxsm|运维| 21|20190403|19.5| 3.8| 4|
+-----+-----+----+---+--------+----+----+------+

```

### SparkSQl的输入输出

#### 输入
高级模式

```
  spark.read.json(path)
  jdbc
  		csv
  		parquet  //默认格式
  		orc
  		table
  		text
  		textFile

```
低级模式

```
  spark.read.format("json").load(path)  //如果不指定format 默认是 parquet 格式。

```
#### 输出
高级模式

```
  dataFrame.write.json(path)
 jdbc
  csv
  parquet  //默认格式
  orc
  table
  text

```
低级模式

```
  dataFrame.write.format("jdbc"). 参数  .mode(SaveMode).save()

```
SaveMode模型

```
  `   - `SaveMode.Overwrite`: overwrite the existing data.
- `SaveMode.Append`: append the data.
- `SaveMode.Ignore`: ignore the operation (i.e. no-op).
- `SaveMode.ErrorIfExists`: default option, throw an exception at runtime.

```
关系型数据库的读写
  保存

```scala
employee.write.format("jdbc")
.option("url", "jdbc:mysql://master01:3306/rdd")
.option("dbtable", " rddtable10")
.option("user", "root")
.option("password", "hive")
.mode("overwrite")
.save()

```
  读取

```scala
val abc = spark.read.format("jdbc")
.option("url", "jdbc:mysql://master01:3306/rdd")
.option("dbtable", " rddtable10")
.option("user", "root")
.option("password", "hive")
.load()

```

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